the ancestors of the Slavs — the ancient Slavs — has long lived on the territory of Central and Eastern Europe. By language they belong to the Indo-European group of peoples who inhabit Europe and part of Asia including India. The first mention of the ancient Slavs belong to the I—II century Roman authors Tacitus, Pliny, Ptolemy called the ancestors of the Slavs wends and believed that they inhabited the basin of the Vistula river. Later writers — Procopius of Caesarea and Jordan (VI century) divide the Slavs into three groups: sklavyny, who lived between the Vistula and the Dniester, the wends, who inhabited the Vistula basin, and the antes, settled between the Dniester and the Dnieper. It antes are considered the ancestors of the Eastern Slavs.
for Detailed information about the settlement of the Eastern Slavs gives in his famous "Tale of bygone years" monk of Kiev-Pechersk monastery Nestor, who lived in the beginning of the XII century. In his chronicle of Nestor calls about 13 tribes (scholars believe that it was tribal unions) and describes their places of settlement.
Near Kiev, on the right Bank of the Dnieper river, lived in the meadow, along the upper course of the Dnieper and the Western Dvina — Krivichi, on the banks of the Pripyat — Drevlyans. On the Dniester, the Prut river, the lower reaches of the Dnieper and the Northern Black sea coast lived Ulichi and tivertsy. North of them lived the locals there. From Pripyat to the Western Dvina settled Dregovichi. On the left Bank of the Dnieper and along the Gum lived the northerners, on the Sozh river — tributary of the Dnieper — Smolensk. Around the lake Ilmen, lived the Ilmen Slavs.
neighbors of the Eastern Slavs in the West was the Baltic people, Western Slavs (poles, Czechs), to the South the Pechenegs and Khazars, to the East the Volga Bulgarians and the numerous Finno-Ugric peoples (Mordva, Mari, Moore).
the Main occupation of the Slavs was agriculture, which, depending on the soil was slash-and-burn or fallow, pastoralism, hunting, fishing, beekeeping (honey collection from wild bees).
In the VII-VIII centuries in connection with the improvement of tools, the transition from fallow or fallow system of agriculture to dvuhpolnaya and three-field system of crop rotation in Eastern Slavs, the decomposition of the tribal system, the growth of wealth inequality.
the Development of Handicrafts and its separation from farming in VIII-IX centuries led to the emergence of cities — centers of Handicrafts and trade. Usually cities have emerged at the confluence of two rivers or hills, because this arrangement allowed much better to defend against enemies. Ancient cities often formed the most important trade routes or at their intersection. The main trade route runs through the lands of the Eastern Slavs, was the route "from the Varangians to the Greeks ", from the Baltic sea to Byzantium.
In the VIII — early IX centuries the Eastern Slavs stands out tribal and military retinue, to know set military democracy. Leaders become tribal princes, surrounded by a personal retinue. Stands out know. The Prince and know grab tribal land in private hereditary share, subdued the former tribal authorities.
Accumulating values, capturing land and land, creating a powerful military squad organization, making trips to capture the spoils of war, collecting tribute, trading and engaging in usury, to know the Eastern Slavs turns into a force standing above society and dominating the earlier freemen. This was the process of class formation and the formation of early forms of statehood at East Slavs. This process gradually led to the formation of Rus in the late ninth century feudal States.
the territory occupied by Slavic tribes, formed of two Russian state center: Kiev and Novgorod, each of which controls a specific part of the trade route "from the Varangians to the Greeks".
In 862, according to the "Tale of bygone years", Novgorod, wishing to stop the outbreak of internecine warfare, invited Varangian princes to govern Novgorod. Arrived at the request of the Novgorodians of Varangian Prince Rurik was the founder of the Russian princely dynasty.
Date of formation of the ancient Russian state is conventionally considered to 882 when Prince Oleg seized after the death of Rurik, the power in Novgorod, launched a campaign to Kiev. Ruling killing Askold and dir, he joined the Northern and southern lands in the United States.
the Legend about calling the Varangian princes formed the basis for the creation of so-called Norman theory of the origin of the ancient Russian state. According to this theory, the Russians appealed to the Normans (then called
if immigrants from Scandinavia) in order that they put things in order on Russian soil. In response to Russia came three princes: Rurik, Sineus and Truvor. After the death of the brothers Rurik was United under his rule the whole land of Novgorod.
the Basis for this theory was rooted in the works of the German historians ' position on the absence of preconditions for the formation of the state among the Eastern Slavs.
Subsequent studies have refuted this theory, as the determining factor in the formation of any state are internal objective conditions, without which no external forces it is impossible to establish. On the other hand, the story about the foreign origins of power, is quite typical of medieval Chronicles and found in the ancient histories of many European States.
After the unification of Novgorod and Kiev lands into a single feudal state of Kievan Prince became known as the "great Prince". He ruled with the help of a Council consisting of other princes and combatants. Tribute collection was carried out by the Grand Duke with the help of the senior squads (the so-called nobles, husbands). Was the Prince Junior squad (gridi, youths). The oldest form of tribute collection was "polyuddya". In late autumn, the Prince toured the subject to him of the earth, collecting tribute and meting out justice. Stated rate of delivery of the tribute was not. All winter Prince spent circling the earth and collecting tribute. In the summer, the Prince with his retinue visited the military campaigns, subjecting Slavic tribes, and fighting with neighbors.
Gradually, most of the princely combatants become land owners. They were its own economy by exploiting the labour of peasants salabasama them. Gradually, these vigilantes have increased and could continue to withstand the Grand Prince as their own teams, and its economic power.
Social and class structure of the early feudal state of Rus was fuzzy. The feudal class was diverse in its composition. It was a great Prince with his entourage, representatives of the senior squad, the entourage of the Prince, the boyars, the local princes.
among the dependent population owned slaves (people who have lost their freedom as a result of sale, debts, etc.), servants (those who have lost freedom as a result of captivity), purchases (peasants, received from the Lord "coop" — a loan of money, grain or animal traction), etc. the bulk of the rural population were freemen-serfs. As the seizure of their land they turned into feudal-dependent people.
Reign of Oleg
After the capture of Kiev in 882 Oleg subjugated the Drevlyane, northerners, Radimichi, Croats, tivertsy. Successfully fought Oleg with the Khazars. In 907 he besieged the capital of Byzantium Constantinople and in 911 concluded with her favorable trade agreement.
After the death of Oleg, Grand Prince of Kiev was the son of Rurik, Igor. He conquered the Eastern Slavs, who lived between the Dniester and the Danube, fought with Constantinople, the first of the Russian princes faced with the Pechenegs. In 945, he was killed in the land of the drevlians while trying again to collect tribute from them.
Princess Olga, Prince Svyatoslav
the Widow of Igor, Olga brutally suppressed the revolt of the drevlians. But it has determined the fixed size of the tribute, organized space for the collection of tribute — encampments and cemeteries. Thus it was established a new form of tribute collection — the so-called "Tinker". Olga visited Constantinople, where he converted to Christianity. She ruled in the period of infancy of her son Svyatoslav.
In 964, in the reign of the Rus shall be under the age of majority Svyatoslav. When it to 969 the government largely rules by the Princess Olga, as her son almost spent his life in the campaigns. In 964-966. Svyatoslav Vyatichi freed from the power of the Khazars, and subdued them to Kiev, defeated Volga Bulgaria, Khazar khanate and took the capital of the khanate, the city of ITIL. In 967, he invaded Bulgaria and
settled at the mouth of the Danube, in Pereyaslavets, and in 971, in Alliance with the Bulgarians and Hungarians started to fight with Byzantium. The war was unfortunate for him, and he was forced to conclude peace with the Byzantine Emperor. On the way back to Kiev Svyatoslav Igorevich in the Dnieper rapids was killed in battle with the Pechenegs, the Byzantines warned of his return.
After the death of Svyatoslav between his sons began fighting for the government in Kiev. The winner she turned out to be Saint Vladimir. Campaigns against the Vyatichi, Lithuanians, Radimichi, Bulgarians Vladimir strengthened the possession of the Kievan Rus. For the organization of defense against the Pechenegs, he set several defensive lines with a system of fortresses.
To strengthen princely power Vladimir attempted to turn the people's pagan beliefs into a state religion and this was installed in Kiev and Novgorod the main squad cult of the Slavic God Perun. However, this attempt was unsuccessful, and he turned to Christianity. This religion was declared the only Russian religion. Vladimir adopted Christianity from Byzantium. The adoption of Christianity not only equate Kievan Rus with neighbouring States, but also had an enormous influence on the culture, life and customs of ancient Russia.
Yaroslav the Wise
After the death of Vladimir Svyatoslavovich between his sons began a fierce struggle for power, culminating in the victory of G. in 1019 Yaroslav. Under him Russia became one of the strongest States in Europe. In 1036 the Russian troops inflicted a major defeat on the Pechenegs, after which their raids on Russia ceased.
Yaroslav, nicknamed the Wise, began to take shape a common for the whole of Russia the judicial code, Russkaya Pravda. It was the first document governing the relationship between princely combatants among themselves and with the inhabitants of the cities, the procedure for the settlement of various disputes and indemnification.
the Important reforms under Yaroslav the Wise was held in the Church organization. In Kiev, Novgorod, Polotsk was built the majestic cathedrals of St. Sophia, which was to show the Church autonomy of Russia. In 1051 the Metropolitan of Kiev was elected not in Constantinople, as before, and in Kiev the Cathedral of Russian bishops. Were identified tithe. Be the first monasteries. Canonized the first saints — brothers the princes Boris and Gleb.
Kievan Rus under Yaroslav the Wise had reached its highest power. Support, friendship and kinship had searched for many of the largest States of Europe.
Feudal fragmentation in Rus '
However, the heirs of Yaroslav — Izyaslav, Svyatoslav, Vsevolod — was unable to maintain the unity of Russia. Feuding brothers led to the weakening of Kievan Rus, which was used by the new formidable enemy, appeared on the southern borders of the state, and Cumans. They were nomads, forcing who lived here before the Pechenegs. In 1068 the combined forces of the brothers of Yaroslav's sons were defeated by the Polovtsy, which led to an uprising in Kiev.
a New uprising in Kiev that erupted after the death of the Kiev Prince Svyatopolk II of Kiev in 1113, forced the Kiev nobility to call for the reign of Vladimir Monomakh, grandson of Yaroslav the Wise, powerful and authoritative Prince. Vladimir was the mastermind and supervisor of military campaigns against the Polovtsy in 1103, 1107, and 1111. Becoming the Prince of Kiev, he suppressed the rebellion, but at the same time was forced by legislation to soften position of the lower classes. Thus arose the Charter of Vladimir Monomakh, which, without encroaching on the foundations of feudal relations, sought to make the position of the farmers, trapped in debt bondage. The same spirit that animates, and the "instructions" of Vladimir Monomakh, where he advocated peace among the feudal lords and peasants.
the Reign of Vladimir Monomakh was the time of strengthening of Kievan Rus. He managed to unite under his rule a large territory of the old Russian state and to stop the princely feuds. However, after his death, the feudal fragmentation in Russia increased again.
the Cause of this phenomenon lied in the course of economic and political development of Russia as a feudal state. The consolidation of large estates — estates, which were dominated by subsistence farming, led to the fact that they became independent industrial complexes related to their immediate environment. The city became the economic and political centers of the estates. Feudal lords became full owners of their land, independent of the Central government. The victory of Vladimir Monomakh over Polovtsy, temporarily eliminating a military threat have also contributed to the isolation of individual lands.
Kievan Rus split into independent principalities, each of which is the size of the territory can be compared with the average Western European Kingdom. It was Chernigov, Smolensk, Polotsk, Pereyaslavl, Galicia, Volyn, Ryazan, Rostov-Suzdal, Principality of Kiev, Novgorod land. In each of the principalities not only existed its internal order, but also conducted an independent foreign policy.
the Process of feudal fragmentation has opened the way for the consolidation of the system of feudal relations. However it had several negative effects. The division into an independent Principality ceased the princely feuds, and the Principality began to be split up among the heirs. In addition, inside the principalities, the struggle between the princes and local nobles. Each party strove for the greatest fullness of power, calling on his side to fight against the enemy foreign troops. But most importantly — was weakened defense capability of Russia, which soon took advantage of the Mongol conquerors.
By the end of XII — beginning of XIII century the Mongolian state occupied vast territory from Baikal and the Amur in the East to the headwaters of the Yenisei and Irtysh in the West, from the great wall in the South to the borders of southern Siberia in the North. The main occupation of the Mongols was nomadic pastoralism, therefore, the main source of wealth served as constant raids to capture booty and slaves, of the pasture lands.
the Army of Mongols was a powerful organization made up of the foot guards and cavalry, who was the main offensive force. All units were constrained by ill-discipline, was well established intelligence service. A Mongols had siege equipment. In the early thirteenth century the Mongol hordes conquer and ravage the largest Central Asian city Bukhara, Samarkand, Urgench, Merv. Passing through the Caucasus, turned them into ruins, Mongol armies out in the steppe North of the Caucasus, and by breaking the Polovtsian tribes, the hordes of Mongol-Tatars led by Genghis Khan advanced on the black sea steppes in the direction of Russia.
their opponents were a combined army of Russian princes, commanded by the Prince of Kiev Mstislav Romanovich. The decision was taken at the princely Congress in Kiev, after the Polovtsian Khan appealed to the Russian for help. The battle took place in may, 1223 on the river Kalka. Cumans almost from the start of the battle rushed in flight. Russian troops came face to face with a yet unknown opponent. They were not aware of the organization of the Mongol army, no battle techniques. In Russian regiments lacked unity and coherence. One of the princes led their squads into battle, others preferred to wait. The consequence of this behavior was the brutal defeat of the Russian troops.
Reaching after the battle of Kalka to the Dnieper, the Mongol hordes did not go to the North, and, turning to the East, back into the Mongolian steppe. After the death of Genghis Khan by his grandson Batu in the winter of 1237, moved the army now against the
Russia. Devoid of the assistance of other Russian lands, the Ryazan Principality was the first victim of the invaders. Devastated the Ryazan land, the troops of Batu Khan moved to Vladimir-Suzdal Principality. The Mongols destroyed and burned Kolomna and Moscow. In February 1238 they came to the capital of the Principality — the city of Vladimir, and took it after a fierce assault.
Vladimir Ravaged land, the Mongols moved against Novgorod. But due to the spring thaw, they were forced to turn to the side of the Volga steppes. Only in the following year Batu again moved troops to the conquest of southern Russia. Having seized Kiev, they went through the Galicia-Volyn Principality in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic. After that, the Mongols returned to the Volga steppes, where they formed the state of Golden Horde. As a result of these campaigns, the Mongols conquered all the Russian lands, with the exception of Novgorod. Over Russia looming Tatar yoke, which lasted until the end of the XIV century.
the Yoke of the Tatars was to use the economic potential of Russia in the interests of the conquerors. Every year Russia has paid a huge tribute to the Golden Horde and tightly controlled the activities of the Russian princes. In the cultural sphere, the Mongols used the work of Russian artists for the construction and decoration of the Golden Horde towns. The conquerors plundered the material and artistic values of Russian cities, draining the life force of the population of numerous raids.
Russia, weakened the Mongol-Tatar yoke, were in a very difficult situation, when over the North-Western lands threatened from the Swedish and German feudal lords. After the capture of Baltic lands of the Livonian order close to the borders of Novgorod and Pskov land. In 1240 took place the battle of the Neva — a battle between Russian and Swedish armies on the Neva river. The Prince of Novgorod Alexander Yaroslavovich defeated the enemy, for which he received the nickname Nevsky.
Alexander Nevsky led the United Russian army, which was made in the spring of 1242 for the liberation of Pskov, captured by the time the German knights. In pursuit of their army, the Russian squad came out to the lake Peipus, 5 April 1242, was a famous battle called the battle on the Ice. The result is a fierce fight German knights were routed.
the value of the victories of Alexander Nevsky with the aggression of the crusaders is hard to overestimate. In case of success the crusaders would occur forced assimilation of peoples of Russia in many areas of their life and culture. This could not happen for almost three centuries the Tartar yoke, as the General culture of the steppe nomads was much lower than the culture of the Germans and Swedes. Therefore, the Mongol-Tatars was not able to impose on the Russian people, their culture and way of life.
the Ancestor of the Moscow princes dynasty and the first independent Prince of Moscow was the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, Daniel. At that time Moscow was a small and poor destiny. However, Daniel was able to significantly expand its boundaries. In order to gain control over the Moscow river, and in 1301 he took from Prince of Ryazan, Kolomna. In 1302 to Moscow was annexed Pereyaslavl inheritance, the following year Mozhaisk, which was part of the Smolensk Principality.
the Rise and rise of Moscow were primarily associated with its location in the center of that part of the Slavic lands, where they formed the Russian nation. Economic development of Moscow and the Moscow Principality was facilitated by their location at the crossroads of both the water and land trade routes. Trading fees are paid to the Moscow princes roadways merchants, was an important source of growth for the princely Treasury. No less important was the fact that the city was in the center
the Russian principalities, which covered him from the raids of invaders. The Principality of Moscow became a kind of refuge for many Russian people, which also contributed to the development of the economy and rapid population growth.
In the XIV century Moscow put forward as the center of the Grand Duchy of Moscow — one of the strongest in North-Eastern Russia. The skillful policy of the Moscow princes contributed to the rise of Moscow. From the time of Ivan I Danilovich Kalita Moscow became the political center of Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy, and residence of the Russian metropolitans, ecclesiastical capital of Russia. The struggle between Moscow and Tver for supremacy in Russia ends with the victory of the Prince of Moscow.
In the second half of the XIV century when the grandson of Ivan Kalita Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy of Moscow was the organizer of the armed struggle of the Russian people against the Mongol-Tatar yoke, the overthrow of which began with the battle of Kulikovo in 1380 when Dmitry Ivanovich broke hundred thousand troops of Khan Mamai on the Kulikovo field. The Golden Horde khans, recognizing the importance of Moscow, has repeatedly tried to destroy it (the burning of Moscow by Khan Tokhtamysh in 1382). However, nothing could stop the consolidation of Russian lands around Moscow. In the last quarter of the XV century, when Grand Prince Ivan III Vasilyevich of Moscow becomes the capital of the centralized Russian state in 1480, forever cast off the Mongol-Tatar yoke (standing on the Ugra river).
After the death of Basil III in 1533, took the throne and his three year old son Ivan IV. Because of his childhood governess was declared Elena Glinskaya, his mother. So begins the period of the infamous "knights of the Board" — the boyar conspiracy, a noble unrest, urban uprisings. Part of Ivan IV in government activities begins with the creation of the Elected Parliament — a special Council of the young king, which was composed of the leaders of the nobility, representatives of the largest nobility. The composition of the Elected Parliament as would reflect a compromise between the different layers of domination-guide class.
Despite this, the worsening relationship of Ivan IV with certain circles of the nobility began to brew in the mid 50-ies of the XVI century. Especially sharp protest caused the course of Ivan IV "open big war" in Livonia. Some members of the government believed a war for the Baltic States is premature and is required to direct all forces in the development of the southern and Eastern borders of Russia. The split between Ivan IV and the majority of the members Elected Parliament pushed the boyars revolt against the new political course. This prompted the king to move to more drastic means — the complete elimination of the boyar opposition and the creation of a special punitive authorities. A new order of government, introduced by Ivan IV at the end of 1564, was called the oprichnina.
the Country was divided into two parts: the oprichnina and zemshchina. In the oprichnina, the Tsar included the most important land — economically developed parts of the country, strategically important points. On this land was settled by the nobles that were included in the oprichnina army. To keep it was a responsibility of the zemshchina. The boyars with the oprichnina territories were evicted.
In the oprichnina created a parallel system of governance. Her head was Ivan IV. The oprichnina was created to eliminate those who expressed dissatisfaction with the autocracy. It was not only the administrative and land reform. In an effort to destroy the remnants of feudal fragmentation in Russia, Ivan the terrible did not stop before any atrocities. Started oprichnina terror, executions and exile. A particularly brutal defeat suffered centre and North-West of the Russian land, where the nobility was particularly strong. In 1570 Ivan IV undertook a campaign against Novgorod. On the way oprichnina army defeated Klin, Torzhok, and Tver.
Oprichnina destroyed the princely-boyar landownership. However, it greatly weakened his power. Was undermined by the political role of the boyar aristocracy, opposed
policy of centralization. At the same time, the oprichnina were worsened the situation of the peasants and contributed to their mass enslavement.
In 1572, shortly after the campaign against Novgorod oprichnina was abolished. The reason was not only that the main force of the opposition of the nobility was by this time broken and most of it was physically destroyed almost completely. The main reason for the abolition of the oprichnina is clearly overdue displeasure with this policy of various segments of the population. But, abolishing the oprichnina and even some nobles returning to their old fiefdoms, Ivan the terrible did not change the overall direction of its policy. Many oprichnina institutions continued to exist after 1572 called the Tsar's court.
Oprichnina could give only a temporary success, as it was an attempt by brute force to break something that was created by the economic laws of development of the country. The need to fight the specific old days, the strengthening of centralization and authority of the king was objectively necessary at the time for Russia. The reign of Ivan the terrible determined the further developments — the establishment of serfdom on a national scale and so-called "time of troubles" at the turn of XVI-XVII centuries.
After Ivan the terrible Russian Tsar in 1584, was his son Fedor Ivanovich, the last Tsar of the Rurik dynasty. His reign was the beginning of the period in Russian history, which is denoted as the "time of troubles". Fedor was a weak and sickly man, unable to control the huge Russian government. Among his entourage is gradually released Boris Godunov, who after the death of Fyodor in 1598 he was elected the Zemsky Cathedral on a Kingdom. A supporter of hard power, the new king continued the policy of enslavement of the peasantry. A decree was issued on bonded slaves, but then saw the light of the decree establishing "time limit years", that is, the period during which the owners of the peasants could sue for the return of their runaway serfs. During the reign of Boris Godunov continued the distribution of land serving people at the expense of holdings selected into the coffers of the monasteries and the disgraced boyars.
In 1601-1602. Russia suffered severe crop failures. The deteriorating situation of the population contributed to the cholera epidemic that struck the Central regions of the country. Disasters and the discontent of the people led to many rebellions, the largest of which was the revolt of the Cotton, barely suppressed by the authorities in the autumn of 1603,
taking Advantage of the difficulties of the internal situation of the Russian state, the Polish and Swedish feudal lords tried to capture Smolensk and the Seversky land, which previously was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Part of the Russian nobility were dissatisfied with the reign of Boris Godunov, and it was the breeding ground for the emergence of the opposition.
In terms of General discontent on the Western borders of Russia there is an impostor posing as "miraculously escaped" in Uglich tsarevitch Dmitry, son of Ivan the terrible. "Tsarevich Dmitry" appealed for help to the Polish magnates, and then to king Sigismund. To enlist the support of the Catholic Church, he secretly converted to Catholicism and promised to subordinate the Russian Church to the Holy see. In the autumn of 1604 False Dmitry with a small army crossed the Russian border and moved through Siver Ukraine to Moscow. Despite the defeat at Dubrynichi in early 1605, he was able to raise a rebellion and many areas of the country. The news of the appearance of "legitimate Tsar Dmitry" had given rise to hopes for change in life, so city after city announced its support of the pretender. Meeting no resistance in its path, false Dmitry came to Moscow, where by that time died, Boris Godunov. Moscow Bo-arstvo, which does not accept as king the son of Boris Godunov, allowed the imposter to establish itself on the Russian throne.
But he was in no hurry to fulfil his earlier promises to transfer to Poland the outlying Russian region and especially to draw the Russian people to Catholicism. The false is not justified.
hope and the peasantry, as was to pursue the same policy as Godunov, based on the nobility. The nobles, who used the false Dmitry to overthrow Godunov, now only waited the occasion to get rid of him and come to power. The reason for the overthrow of false Dmitri was the marriage of the pretender with the daughter of the Polish magnate Maryna Mniszek. Arrived at the celebration the poles were in Moscow in the conquered city. Taking advantage of the current situation, the boyars led by Vasili shuiski 17 may 1606, revolted against the pretender and his Polish supporters. False Dmitry was killed, and the poles expelled from Moscow.
After the murder of false Dmitry the Russian throne was taken by Vasiliy shuyskiy. His government had to deal with the peasant movement of the early seventeenth century ( the uprising led by Ivan Bolotnikov), the Polish intervention, a new stage which began in August 1607 (false Dmitry II). After the defeat at Volkhov Basil Shuisky government was besieged in Moscow by Polish-Lithuanian invaders. At the end of 1608 many areas of the country was under the rule of the false Dmitry II, helped by a new surge of the class struggle and the growth of contradictions among the Russian nobility. In February 1609 the government Shuisky signed an agreement with Sweden under which recruitment Swedish forces were inferior to her part of the Russian Ter-the territory on the North of the country.
Since the end of 1608 began a spontaneous people's liberation movement, to lead the government Shuisky managed only with the end of winter 1609 By the end of 1610, Moscow was freed and most of the country. But in September 1609 began an open Polish intervention. The defeat of the troops under Shuisky Klushino from the army of Sigismund III in June 1610, the performance of the urban masses against the government of Vasily Shuisky in Moscow led to his downfall. July 17, part of the boyars, the Metropolitan and provincial nobility shuiski was deposed from the throne and forcibly tonsured a monk. In September 1610 he was given to the poles and taken to Poland, where he died in prison.
After the overthrow Basil Shuisky power was in the hands of the boyars 7. This government called "Council of seven". One of the first decisions of the "Council of seven" was the decision not to elect the king of the representatives of Russian birth. In August 1610 this group concluded with standing near Moscow, the poles contract, to recognize the Russian Tsar and son of the Polish king Sigismund III, Vladislav. On the night of 21 September the Polish troops were secretly admitted into Moscow.
the Aggressive actions launched and Sweden. The overthrow Basil Shuisky freed her from the Alliance Treaty obligations 1609, the Swedish army occupied a considerable part of the North of Russia and captured Novgorod. The country faced a direct threat of loss of sovereignty.
In Russia, the discontent grew. Had the idea of creating a national militia to free Moscow from the invaders. It was headed by the Governor Procopius Lyapunov. In February and March 1611 the militia troops laid siege to Moscow. The decisive battle took place on March 19. However, to liberate the city have not yet succeeded. The poles remained in the Kremlin and China-town.
in the Autumn of the same year, at the call of the Nizhny Novgorod Kuzma Minin, was to create a second militia, the head of which was elected Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. Originally, the militia was advancing on the Eastern and North-Eastern regions of the country, where not only formed new districts, but also created government and administration. It helped the army to enlist the support of people, finances and supplies all the major cities of the country.
In August 1612 the militia of Minin and Pozharsky came to Moscow and was merged with the remnants of the first militia. The Polish garrison was experiencing high levels of deprivation and hunger. After a successful storm China-town on 26 October, 1612 the poles surrendered and handed over the Kremlin. Moscow was liberated from the invaders. The Polish troops again attempt to take Moscow failed, and Sigis-mund III was defeated near Volokolamsk.
In January 1613 gathered in Moscow Zemsky Sobor adopted a decision on election to the Russian throne 16-year-old Mikhail Romanov, son of the Metropolitan Philaret, who was at that time in Polish captivity.
In 1618, the poles again invaded Russia, but was defeated. The Polish adventure ended with an armistice in the village of Deulino in the same year. However, Russia lost Smolensk and the Seversky city, who were able to return only in the mid-seventeenth century. Returned Russian prisoners, including Filaret, the father of the new Russian Tsar. In Moscow, he was elevated to Patriarchal rank and has played a significant role as de facto ruler of Russia.
In the most severe and harsh against Russia defended its independence and entered a new stage of its development. Actually ends its medieval history.
Russia has defended its independence, but suffered heavy territorial losses. A consequence of the intervention and the peasant war under the leadership of I. Bolotnikov (1606-1607) was brutal economic ruin. Her contemporaries called her "the great Moscow ruin." Almost half of arable lands were abandoned. Having dealt with the intervention, Russia is slowly and with great difficulties to restore their economy. This was the main content of the reign of the first two tsars of the Romanov dynasty — Mikhail Fedorovich (1613-1645), Aleksei Mikhailovich (1645-1676)..
To improve the work of state administration bodies and create a more equitable system of taxation under the decree of Mikhail Romanov was the census, compiled by the land inventory. In the first years of his reign, the role of the Zemsky Sobor, which became a sort of permanent national Council with the king and gave the Russian state the resemblance to a constitutional monarchy.
the Swedes, hosted in the North, and failed near Pskov and in 1617 concluded Stolbov peace Treaty, in which Russia was returned to Novgorod. However, Russia lost the entire coast of the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic sea. The situation changed only after almost a hundred years, at the beginning of the XVIII century already under Peter I.
during the reign of Mikhail Romanov was also intensive construction of the "defense line" against the Crimean Tatars, there was a further colonization of Siberia.
After the death of Mikhail Romanov to the throne his son Alex. From the time of his reign actually begins the establishment of autocratic rule. Ceased operations of the Zemsky Sobor, reduced the role of the Boyar Duma. In 1654 was created the Order of secret Affairs, which reported directly to the king, and exercised control over governance.
the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich marked by a number of popular uprisings and urban revolts, the so-called "copper rebellion", the peasant war led by Stepan Razin. In several cities of Russia (Moscow, Voronezh, Kursk, etc.) in 1648 uprising broke out. The uprising in Moscow in June 1648, called "salt riot". It was caused by discontent of the population of predatory policy of the government, which aimed to replenish the state Treasury has replaced various direct taxes unified tax on salt, which caused its rise in price several times. The uprising was attended by townspeople, peasants and Streltsy. The rebels set fire to the White city and Kitai-Gorod, defeated yards most hated boyars, clerks, merchants. The king was forced to make temporary concessions to the rebels, and then, making a split in the ranks of the rebels,
they executed many leaders and active participants in the uprising.
In 1650 the uprising occurred in Novgorod and Pskov. They were caused by the enslavement of the townspeople Conciliar code of 1649, the Rebellion in Novgorod had been quickly crushed by the authorities. In Pskov it failed and the government had to negotiate some concessions.
25 Jun 1662, Moscow was shaken by a new major uprising — "copper revolt". His reason was the breakdown of the economic life of the state in the years of the wars of Russia with Poland and Sweden, a sharp increase in taxes and increased Fe properties odel properties-feudal exploitation. The release of a large number of copper coins equal in value to silver, led to their devaluation, mass production of counterfeit copper money. The uprising was attended by 10 thousand people, mostly residents of the capital. The rebels went to the village of Kolomenskoye, where the king was, and demanded the release of the traitor-boyars. Troops brutally suppressed the speech, but the government, fearful of rebellion in 1663 canceled copper money.
the Strengthening of feudal oppression and a General deterioration of people's life were the main causes of the peasant war led by Stepan Razin (1667-1671 years). In the uprising took part the peasants, the urban poor, the poorer Cossacks. The movement began with the robbery of the campaign of the Cossacks in Persia. On the way back, the difference approached Astrakhan. The local authorities decided to ignore them through the city, for which he received some of the weapons and production. Then the troops Razin took Tsaritsyn, then went to the don.
in the spring of 1670 began the second period of the uprising, the main contents of which was the performance against the boyars, nobles, merchants. The rebels again seized the Empress, and then Astrakhan. Samara and Saratov surrendered without a fight. In early September troops of Razin approached Simbirsk. By the time they were joined by the peoples of the Volga — Tatars, Mordvinians. The movement soon spread to the Ukraine. Take Simbirsk Razin failed. Wounded in battle, with a small detachment Razin retreated to the don. There he was captured wealthy Cossacks and sent to Moscow where he was executed.
Troubled times of the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich was marked by another important event — the split of the Orthodox Church. In 1654, at the initiative of Patriarch Nikon in Moscow gathered the Church Council, at which it was decided to compare the Church books with their Greek originals and to establish a uniform and mandatory for all order of worship.
Many priests, led by Archpriest Avvakum spoke out against the resolution of the Council and announced his departure from the Orthodox Church, led by Nikon. They were called dissenters or old believers. Emerged in Church circles, opposition to reform became a form of social protest.
with the reform, Nikon set theocratic goals — to create a strong ecclesiastical authority standing above the state. However, the intervention of the Patriarch in the Affairs of state administration caused the rupture with the king, which resulted in the deposition of Nikon and the transformation of the Church in the part of the state apparatus. This was another step towards autocracy.
In the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich in 1654, was the reunion of Ukraine with Russia. In the XVII century the Ukrainian lands were under the rule of Poland. They had been forcibly imposed Catholicism, there was the Polish magnates and gentry, who brutally oppressed the Ukrainian people, which caused the rise of the national liberation movement. Its centre was the Sich, where they formed free Cossacks. At the head of this movement became Bogdan Khmelnitsky.
In 1648, his troops defeated the poles at the Yellow Waters, Korsun and pilavaki. After the defeat of the Polish uprising spread to the whole Ukraine and part of Belarus. Simultaneously Khmelnitsky appealed
to Russia with the request to accept Ukraine into the Russian state. He knew that only in Alliance with Russia could be rid of the danger of total enslavement of the Ukraine by Poland and Turkey. However, at this time, the government of Alexei Mikhailovich to grant his request could not, as Russia was not ready for war. However, despite all the difficulties of its internal political situation, Russia continued to provide Ukraine with diplomatic, economic and military support.
In April 1653, Khmelnytsky turned to Russia with a request to accept Ukraine into its composition. 10 may 1653 the Zemsky Sobor in Moscow decided to accede to the request. January 8, 1654 Most happy in the town of Pereyaslavl proclaimed the accession of Ukraine to Russia. In this regard, the war between Poland and Russia, culminating in the signing at the end of the 1667 Treaty of Andrusovo. Russia gained Smolensk, Dorogobuzh, White Church, Seversk land with Chernigov and Starodub. Right-Bank Ukraine and Belarus remained part of Poland. Sich, according to the contract, was under the joint control of Russia and Poland. These conditions were finally embodied in the 1686 "Eternal peace" between Russia and Poland.
In the XVII century, it is clear a noticeable gap between Russia and the advanced Western countries. The lack of access to warm-water ports prevented trade and cultural relations with Europe. The need in the regular army was dictated by the complexity of foreign policy in Russia. Strelets army and the nobility, the militia was no longer able to fully provide for its defense. There were no large manufacturing industry, outdated control system, based on the orders. Russia needed reform.
In 1676 the throne passed to the weak and sickly Feodor Alekseevich, from which it was impossible to expect a radical transformation so necessary for the country. Still, in 1682, he managed to abolish the unfair system of distribution of ranks and positions of nobility and gentility that existed since the XIV century. In foreign policy, Russia managed to win the war with Turkey, which was forced to accept the reunification of left-Bank Ukraine with Russia.
In 1682 Theodore A. died, and since he was childless, once again the Russian dynastic crisis broke out, as the throne could claim the two sons of Alexis Mikhailovich — painful and weak sixteen-year-old John and ten-year-old Peter. From claims to the throne refused and Princess Sophia. The result of the Streltsy uprising in 1682 kings was declared to be both the heir and the Regent Sophia.
In the years of her reign were made small concessions Posad population and weakened the investigation of runaway peasants. In 1689 there was a gap between Sofia and the boyar-nobles who supported Peter I. Having been defeated in this struggle, Sophia was imprisoned in the Novodevichy convent.
In the first period of the reign of Peter I had three events, decisively influenced the formation of the reformer. The first of these was the visit of the young king in Arkhangelsk in the years 1693-1694, where the sea and the ships that conquered it forever. The second Azov campaign against the Turks with the aim of finding access to the Black sea. The capture of the Turkish fortress of Azov was the first victory of the Russian army and created the Russian Navy, the beginning of turning the country into a Maritime power. On the other hand, these campaigns showed the need for change in the Russian army. The third event was a visit of the Russian diplomatic mission to Europe, which was attended by the king himself. The Embassy has not reached a direct purpose (Russia had to abandon the struggle against Turkey), but it has studied the international situation, prepared the ground for the struggle for the Baltic States and exit to the Baltic sea.
In 1700 began the difficult Northern war with Sweden which lasted for 21 years. This war largely determined the pace and nature held in Russia for the reforms. The Northern war was fought for the return of seized lands by the Swedes and Russian access to the Baltic sea. In the first period of war (1700-1706). after the defeat of the Russian forces at Narva, Peter I was not only able to collect a new army, but to rebuild on a war footing, the industry of the country. Having mastered the key points in the Baltic States and founded in 1703, St. Petersburg, Russian troops dug in on the Gulf coast.
During the second period of war (1707-1709). the Swedes through Ukraine invaded Russia but was defeated at the village of Forest, was finally defeated in the battle of Poltava in 1709 The third period of the war falls on 1710-1718., when Russian troops captured a number of cities in the Baltic States, pushed the Swedes out of Finland, together with field-kami pushed the enemy in Pomerania. Russian fleet won a brilliant victory at Gangut in 1714.
during the fourth period of the Northern war, despite the machinations of England, concluded a peace with Sweden, Russia had established themselves on the shores of the Baltic sea. The Northern war ended in 1721 with the signing of the Treaty of Nystad. Sweden had recognized the annexation to Russia Livonia, Estonia, Izhora lands, part of Karelia and some Islands of the Baltic sea. Russia undertook to pay Sweden monetary compensation for the waste to the territory and to return to Finland. The Russian state, having regained previously captured land Sweden, has secured its access to the Baltic sea.
amid the tumultuous events of the first quarter of XVIII century there was a restructuring of all sectors of life of the country and implement reforms of the public administration system and political system — the power of the king acquired the unlimited, absolute nature. In 1721 the king took the title of Emperor of all the Russias. Thus, Russia became an Empire, and its ruler — the Emperor of a huge and powerful state, which became a par with the great world powers of the time.
the Creation of new power structures began with changing the image of the monarch and the pillars of his power and authority. In 1702 to replace the Boyar Duma came "Consilia Ministers", and in 1711 the Supreme institution in the country is the Senate. The establishment of this authority and gave rise to complex bureaucratic structure with offices, departments and numerous state employees. That is from the time of Peter I of Russia formed a kind of cult of bureaucratic institutions and administrative authorities.
In 1717-1718. instead of a primitive and long-outdated system of orders boards were created — a prototype for future ministries, and in 1721 the establishment of a Synod, headed by a secular official completely put the Church at the mercy and service of the state. Thus from now on the institution of the Patriarchate in Russia was cancelled.
the Crown clearance of the bureaucratic structure of absolutist States was the "Table of ranks" adopted in 1722 According to military, civil and court ranks were divided into fourteen ranks — steps. Society didn't just happen, but was under the control of the Emperor and aristocracy. Improved functioning of public institutions, each of which received a certain activity.
in dire need of money, the government of Peter I introduced a poll tax, replacing the household tax. In this regard, for the account of the male population in the country, which became the new object of taxation, it was carried out a census — the so-called revision. In 1723 was published a decree on succession to the throne on which the monarch himself received the right to appoint their successors, regardless of kinship and birthright.
during the reign of Peter I there was a large number of manufactures and mining companies, began the development of new iron ore deposits. Contributing to the development of the industry, Peter has established Central bodies in charge of trade and industry, gave state-owned enterprises into private hands.
Protective tariff 1724 protecting new industries from foreign competition and encouraged the importation of raw materials and products, production of which did not meet the needs of the domestic market, reflecting the policy of mercantilism.
the results of the activities of Peter I
Thanks to the energetic activities of Peter I in the economy, the level and forms of development of productive forces, in the political system of Russia, in the structure and functions of the authorities in the organization of the army, in class and class structure of the population, life and culture of the people has undergone tremendous changes. Medieval Muscovy became the Russian Empire. Radically changed the place of Russia and its role in international Affairs.
the Complexity and contradictions of Russia's development in this period has identified inconsistency in the activities of Peter I's reforms. On the one hand, these reforms had a tremendous historical sense because they were going to meet national interests and needs of the country, contributed to its progressive development, which aims at the elimination of its backwardness. On the other hand, the reforms carried out by the same feudal methods and thereby to contribute to strengthening the rule of landlords.
Progressive transformation of Peter's time from the beginning carried the conservative features, which in the course of development of the country were stronger and could not ensure the elimination of the problem of underdevelopment in full. Objectively these reforms wore bourgeois character, subjective well — their implementation has led to a strengthening of serfdom, strengthening of feudalism. Other they could not be capitalist way of life in Russia that time was still very weak.
it Should be noted and the cultural changes in Russian society that occurred in the time of Peter: the emergence of the schools of the first stage, schools in the field, Russian Academy of Sciences. In the country there is a network of printers for the printing of domestic and translated editions. Began to emerge the country's first newspaper, the first Museum. Significant changes have occurred in the home.
After the death of Emperor Peter I of Russia embarked on a period when the Supreme power rather quickly passed from hand to hand, and occupied the throne did not always have legal rights. It started right after the death of Peter I in 1725 the New aristocracy that emerged during the reign of the Emperor-reformer, for fear of losing their prosperity and power, could ascent to the throne of Catherine I, widow of Peter. This allowed to establish in 1726 The Supreme Privy Council with the Empress, who actually seized power.
the Greatest benefit from this learned the first minion of Peter I — his serene Highness Prince A. D. Menshikov. His influence was so great that even after the death of Catherine I, he was able to subdue the new Russian Emperor, Peter II. However, another group of courtiers, disgruntled with the actions of Menshikov, was stripped of his power, and he was soon exiled to Siberia.
These political changes have not altered the established order. After the sudden death of Peter II in 1730 the most influential group of confidants of the late Emperor, the so-called "Supreme", decided to invite to the throne a niece of Peter I — the Duchess of Courland, Anna Ivanovna, having agreed on its accession terms and conditions ("Conditions"): not to marry, not to appoint a successor, not to declare war, not to introduce new taxes, etc., the Acceptance of such terms did Anna, an obedient toy in the hands of the aristocracy. However, at the request of the deputation of the nobility in the accession to the throne of Anna Ivanovna rejected the terms "Supreme".
Fearing the machinations of the aristocracy, Anna Ivanovna has surrounded himself by foreigners, which became fully depend. Public Affairs the Empress almost was not interested. This prompted the foreigners from the Tsar's inner circle to many abuses, plundering of the Treasury and to insult national dignity of the Russian people.
Shortly before the death of Anna Ivanovna, his successor appointed the grandson of his elder sister baby Ivan Antonovich. In 1740 he at the age of three months was proclaimed Emperor Ivan VI. His Regent was the Duke of Courland Biron, who enjoyed great influence under Anna Ivanovna. This caused the extreme discontent not only among the Russian nobility, but also in the immediate environment of the late Empress. In the result of a court conspiracy, Biron was overthrown and the rights of the Regency was transferred to the mother of the Emperor Anna Leopoldovna. Thus, the dominance of foreigners at the court is preserved.
Among the Russian nobility and officers of the guard there was a conspiracy in favor of the daughter of Peter the great, in 1741 the throne of Elizabeth. In her reign, which lasted until 1761, was the return to Peter the great. The highest organ of state power was the Senate. The Cabinet of Ministers was abolished, the rights of the Russian nobility greatly expanded. All changes in government were primarily aimed at strengthening the autocracy. However, unlike Peter's time, the main role in decision-making began to play the court-bureaucratic elite. Empress Elizaveta Petrovna, like its predecessor, public Affairs, interested in very little.
His heir Elizabeth appointed the son of the eldest daughter of Peter I, Karl Peter Ulrich, Duke of Holstein, who in Orthodoxy, took the name of Peter Fedorovich. He ascended the throne in 1761, under the name of Peter III (1761-1762.). The highest authority was the Imperial Council, but the new Emperor was not prepared to manage the state. The only major event he realized, was "a Manifesto for the granting Volno-and freedom to all Russian nobility", destroys the binding for the nobility of both civil and military service.
the Admiration of Peter III, the Prussian king Friedrich II and the implementation of a policy that conflicted with Russian interests, has led to dissatisfaction with his rule and contributed to the growing popularity of his wife, Sophia Augusta Frederica, Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst, in Orthodoxy, Catherine. Catherine, unlike her husband, was respectful to the Russian customs, traditions, Orthodoxy, and most importantly — to the Russian nobility and army. The conspiracy against Peter III in 1762, raised Catherine to the Imperial throne.
Catherine II, who ruled the country for more than thirty years, was educated, intelligent, business-like, energetic, ambitious woman. Being on the throne, she has repeatedly stated that it is the successor of Peter I. She was able to concentrate in his hands all legislative and most of Executive. The first reform was the reform of the Senate, which has limited his function in government. She spent the confiscation of Church lands, depriving the Church of economic power. A huge number of monastic peasants was transferred to the state, which has enriched the Treasury of Russia.
the Reign of Catherine II left a noticeable trace in the Russian history. As in many other European countries, to Russia during the reign of Catherine II was characterized by a policy of "enlightened absolutism", which was a wise ruler, a patron of the arts, benefactor of all science. Catherine tried to fit this model, and even was in correspondence with French philosophers, preferring Voltaire and Diderot. However, this did not prevent her to pursue a policy of strengthening of feudal oppression.
And yet the manifestation of the policy of "enlightened absolutism" was the establishment and activities of the Commission on the drafting of a new body of law of Russia is obsolete the sobornoye ulozheniye of 1649 In the work of this Commission were the representatives of various population groups: the nobility, townspeople, and Cossacks and state peasants. In the documents of the Commission were fixed caste rights and privileges of various strata of the Russian population. Soon, however, the Commission was dissolved. The Empress found out the mindset of caste groups and bet on the nobility. The goal was the consolidation of state authority in the field.
Since the early 80-ies started the reform period. The main directions were the following: decentralization of management and strengthening the role of local nobility, increased the number of provinces is almost twice that rigid subordination of all power structures on the ground etc. and also Reformed the system of law enforcement. Political functions re-given to the elected Assembly of the nobility, Zemstvo court, headed by the district police chief, and County-level cities — us. In the districts and provinces there was a whole system of courts, independent from the administration. Was introduced and the partial election of officials in the provinces and districts by the forces of the nobility. These reforms have created a fairly perfect system of local government and strengthened the relationship of the nobility and autocracy.
the situation of the nobility was strengthened after the "Ratification on the rights, liberties and advantages of noble nobility" , signed in 1785 In accordance with this document, the nobles were exempted from compulsory service, corporal punishment, and could be deprived of their rights and property only by sentence of the noble court, approved by the Empress.
at the same time with a Charter a Charter to the nobility appeared and "the Charter on the rights and benefits to cities of the Russian Empire." According to her, the citizens were divided into discharges with different rights and responsibilities. Formed city Council, working on issues of urban management, but under the control of the administration. All of these acts further consolidate the estates-corporate division of society and strengthened the autocratic power.
the Rebellion of E. I. Pugachev
exploitation and serfdom in Russia during the reign of Catherine II led to the fact that in 60-70-ies in the country, a wave of anti-feudal protests of peasants, Cossacks, military registration and workhouse folk. The greatest scope they have acquired in the 70-ies, and the most powerful of them entered the history of Russia under the name of the peasant war led by E. Pugachev.
Â1771, excitement penetrated the lands of Yaik Cossacks, who lived on the river of Yaik (modern. Urals). The government began to enter the army orders to the Cossack regiments and to limit the Cossack self-government. The excitement of the Cossacks were suppressed, however, this environment is ripe hatred that spilled in January 1772 as a result of the activities of the Commission of inquiry, to understand MS-loby. This volatile region and chose Pugachev to organize and campaign against the government.
In 1773, Pugachev escaped from the Kazan prison and headed East on the river Yaik, where he proclaimed himself allegedly escaped from death the Emperor Peter III. The Manifesto of Peter III, in which Pugachev complained to the Cossacks land, hayfields, money, attracted a significant portion of disgruntled Cossacks. From that moment began the first phase of the war. After a not-good luck under the Yaik town with a small group of survivors of supporters, he moved to Orenburg. The city was besieged by the rebels. The government pulled the Orenburg troops, which caused the rebels a severe defeat. Retreated to Samara again soon Pugachev was defeated and with a small detachment fled to the Urals.
In the April-June 1774 year, came the second stage of the peasant war. After a number of fighting troops the rebels marched on Kazan. In early July, Pugachev captured Kazan, however, they are unable to resist the coming up of the regular army. Pugachev with a small force crossed to the right Bank of the Volga river and began to retreat to the South.
from that moment the war has reached the highest scale and has acquired a pronounced anti-serfdom character. She captured all Volga region and threatened to spread to the Central regions of the country. Against Pugachev were nominated by selected army units. The spontaneity and locality characteristic of the peasant wars, facilitate the fight against the rebels. Under the blows of the government troops Pugachev retreated to the South, seeking to break through l in the Cossack
the districts of the don and the Yaik. Under the Empress his troops were defeated, and on the way to the Yaik himself Pugachev was captured and extradited to wealthy Cossacks. In 1775 he was executed in Moscow.
the Reasons for the defeat of the peasant war was the tsarist character of its naive monarchism, spontaneity, locality, bad armed' position, and disunity. In addition, this movement participated in various categories of the population, each of which sought to achieve only their goals.
Foreign policy under Catherine II
the Empress Ekaterina II had an active and highly successful foreign policy, which can be divided into three areas. The first foreign policy objective, pursued by her government, was the desire to achieve access to the Black sea, in order, first, to protect the southern areas of the country from threats from Turkey and the Crimean khanate, and second, to expand opportunities for trade and thus to increase the commercialization of agriculture.
in order to accomplish this, Russia has twice fought with Turkey: Russo-Turkish war of 1768-1774 and 1787-1791 In 1768 Turkey, instigated by France and Austria, is very concerned about the strengthening of Russia's position in the Balkans and in Poland, declared war on Russia. In the course of this war, Russian troops under the command of P. A. Rumyantsev won in 1770 brilliant victory over the superior forces of the enemy at rivers Larga and Cahul, and Russian fleet under the command of F. F. Ushakov in the same year twice inflicted the biggest defeat of the Turkish fleet in the Chios Strait and in Chesma Bay. The advance of the troops Rumyantsev in the Balkans forced Turkey to recognize the defeat. In 1774 was signed Kucuk kaynardzhiysky peace Treaty, under which Russia received the land between the bug and Dnieper, the fortresses of Azov, Kerch, Yenikale and Kinburn, Turkey recognized the independence of the Crimean khanate; the Black sea and its Straits were opened to Russian merchant ships.
In 1783, the Crimean Khan Shahin Giray resigned from power, and the Crimea was annexed to Russia. The land of the Kuban also became part of the Russian state. In the same 1783, Georgian king Irakli II recognized the Russian protectorate over Georgia. All these developments have exacerbated the already difficult relations between Russia and Turkey led to a new Russo-Turkish war. In some battles, Russian troops under the command of Alexander Suvorov once again showed their superiority: in 1787, at Kinburn, in 1788 in the capture of Ochakov, and in 1789 near the river Rymnik and under Focsani, and in 1790 was taken the impregnable fortress of Izmail. Russian fleet under the command of Ushakov also won a series of victories over the Turkish fleet in the Kerch Strait, near the island of Tendra, when Cali-acree. Turkey has again admitted defeat. At the Treaty of Jassy in 1791. it was confirmed the accession to Russia of Crimea and the Kuban region, established the border between Russia and Turkey on the Dniester. Russia departed the fortress of Ochakov, Turkey refused the claims on Georgia.
a Second foreign policy objective — the reunification of the Ukrainian and Belarusian lands was completed as a result of the partition of Poland by Austria, Prussia and Russia. These partitions occurred in 1772, 1793, 1795, the Commonwealth ceased to exist as an independent state. Russia regained all of Belarus, and right-Bank Ukraine, and received Courland and Lithuania.
the Third task was the struggle with revolutionary France. The government of Catherine II took a sharply hostile stand towards the events in France. The first time Catherine had decided to openly intervene, but the execution of Louis XVI (21 January 1793), called the final break with France, and the Empress has announced a special decree. The Russian government provided assistance to French emigrants in 1793, concluded treaties with Prussia and England on co-joint action against France. The campaign was prepared 60-thousand corps of Suvorov, the Russian fleet participated in the naval blockade of France. However, this situation Catherine II was not destined to decide.
6 Nov 1796 Catherine II died suddenly. Russian Emperor was her son Paul I, the period of whose reign was full of intense search of the monarch in all spheres of public and international life that from the outside looked more like a hectic throwing from one extreme to another. Trying to bring order to administrative and financial fields, Paul was trying to infiltrate every little thing, sent out conflicting circulars, chastised and punished. All this created an atmosphere of police surveillance and barracks. On the other hand, Paul ordered the release of all political prisoners arrested under Catherine. However, it was easy to go to jail just for the fact that people because of various reasons violated the rules of everyday life.
a Large importance in the work of Paul I gave the lawmaking. In 1797 he "Act of succession" and "Establishment of the Imperial surname" restored the principle of succession exclusively through the male line.
Completely unexpected was the policy of Paul I in relation to the nobility. Catherine Carta came to an end, and the nobility was brought under strict state control. Particularly severely punished the Emperor of the representatives of the noble estates for breach of the public service. But not without extremes: a prejudice of the nobility, on the one hand, Paul I at the same time, on an unprecedented scale carried out the distribution of a significant part of all state peasants to the landowners. And here came another innovation — the law on the peasant question. For the first time in decades, there were official documents which gave some relief to the peasants. Canceled selling serfs and landless peasants, was recommended for a three-day corvee, were allowed peasant complaints and requests that were previously invalid.
In foreign policy the government of Paul I continued the struggle with revolutionary France. In the autumn of 1798, Russia sent to the Mediterranean sea through the Straits squadron under the command of F. F. Ushakov freed the Ionian Islands and southern Italy from the French. One of the largest battles of this campaign was the battle of Corfu in 1799, in the Summer of 1799, Russian warships appeared off the coast of Italy, and the Russian soldiers entered Naples and Rome.
In the same 1799 Russian army under the command of Alexander Suvorov was brilliantly carried out by Italian and Swiss campaign. She managed to free the French from Milan, Turin, made a heroic crossing of the Alps in Switzerland.
In the mid 1800 begins a sharp turn in Russian foreign policy — rapprochement of Russia with France, which has strained relations with England. Trade with it has actually been discontinued. This turn was largely determined by events in Europe in the first decade of the nineteenth century.
In the night from 11 to 12 March 1801, when, as a result of the conspiracy were killed by the Emperor Paul I, the issue was resolved on his accession to the throne his eldest son, Alexander Pavlovich. He was ordained in the plan of the conspiracy. On the new monarch pinned the hopes for liberal reforms and the easing of the regime of personal power.
the Emperor Alexander I was brought up under the care of his grandmother, Catherine II. He was familiar with the ideas of the enlightenment — Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau. However, Alexander Pavlovich thoughts about equality and freedom never separated from autocracy. This half-hearted and became a feature of the reforms, and the reign of Emperor Alexander I.
his First manifest evidence of the adoption of the new policy. It announces the desire to rule according to the laws of Catherine II, to lift restrictions on trade with England, contained an Amnesty and the restoration of the positions of the persons repressed during the reign of Paul I.
All work associated with the liberalization of life, concentrated in the so-called Secret Committee, which brought together friends and associates of the young Emperor — P. A. Stroganov, V. P. Kochubey, Czartoryski and A. N. N. Novosiltsev — adherents of constitutionalism. The Committee lasted until 1805 He was primarily engaged in developing the program for the liberation of the peasants from serfdom and the reform of the state system. The result of this activity was the act of 12 December 1801, which authorized the state peasants, burghers and merchants to buy uninhabited land, and the decree of 20 February 1803 "On free cultivators", which gave landowners the right in their desire to emancipate the peasants by giving them land for a ransom.
a major reform was the reorganization of the higher and Central public authorities. The country has established the Ministry of military-land forces, of Finance and of national education, national Treasury and the Committee of Ministers, who have received a uniform structure and was based on the principle of unity of command. From 1810, in accordance with the project of a prominent statesman of those years of M. M. Speransky became operational the Council of State. However, the serial principle of the separation of powers Speransky were not able to effect. The state Council of the intermediate body pre-rotates in appointed top legislative chamber. Reforms of the early nineteenth century did not touch on the foundations of autocratic power in the Russian Empire.
In the reign of Alexander I annexed to Russia the Kingdom of Poland was granted a Constitution. The constitutional act was granted and the Bessarabian region. Got your legislature — the Seimas and the constitutional structure Finland, also included a part of Russia.
Thus, constitutional rule already existed on the territory of the Russian Empire, which inspired the hopes to spread across the country. In 1818 they started the development of "charters of the Russian Empire", but this document never saw the light of day.
In 1822 the Emperor lost interest in public Affairs, work on the reform was derailed by councilors Alexander I, stood out the figure of the new temporary worker — A. A. Arakcheev, who became the first after the Emperor person in the state and ruled as the all-powerful favorite. The consequences of the reforms of Alexander I and his advisers were minor. The unexpected death of the Emperor in 1825 at the age of 48 became the pretext for open intervention from the most advanced part of Russian society, the so-called Decembrists, against the foundations of the autocracy.
Patriotic war of 1812
during the reign of Alexander I had terrible ordeal for the whole of Russia — the liberation war against Napoleonic aggression. The war was caused by the desire of the French bourgeoisie to dominate the world, a sharp aggravation of Russian-French economic and political contradictions in connection with the aggressive wars of Napoleon I, Russia's refusal from participation in the continental blockade of great Britain. The agreement between Russia and Napoleonic France concluded in the city of Tilsit in 1807, of a temporary nature. It is understood both in Petersburg and in Paris, although many of the dignitaries of the two countries advocated the preservation of the world. However, differences between States continues to be accumulated, which led to open conflict.
12 (24) June 1812, about 500 thousand of Napoleon's soldiers crossed the river Neman and
invaded Russia. Napoleon rejected the proposal of Alexander I on the peaceful settlement of the conflict, if he will take his troops. Thus began world war II, so named because against the French fought not only the regular army, but almost all the population is in the militia and partisan units.
the Russian army consisted of 220 thousand people, and it was divided into three parts. The first army under the command of General M. B. Barclay de Tolly is located on the territory of Lithuania, the second — General Prince P. I. Bagration in Belarus, and the third army — General A. P. Tormasov in Ukraine. The plan of Napoleon was very simple and was to defeat the Russian armies in parts with powerful attacks.
Russian army retreated to the East parallel directions, while maintaining the strength and exhausting the enemy in rearguard actions. 2 (14) of August the army of Barclay de Tolly and Bagration joined in the Smolensk region. Here in a heavy two-day battle the French army lost 20 thousand soldiers and officers, Russian — up to 6 thousand people.
the War clearly took a protracted nature, the Russian army continued its retreat, taking the enemy with him into the interior of the country. In late August 1812 commander-in-chief instead of the Minister of war M. B. Barclay de Tolly was appointed a disciple and colleague of A. V. Suvorov, M. I. Kutuzov. Alexander I, nedolyublivavshiy it was forced to consider the Patriotic sentiments of the Russian people and army, a General dissatisfaction with the tactics of retreat, which was chosen by Barclay de Tolly. Kutuzov decided to give a decisive battle of the French army near the village of Borodino 124 km West of Moscow.
on August 26 (September 7) the battle began. Before the Russian army had a task to wear down the enemy, to undermine its military power and morale, and in case of success — themselves to take the offensive. Kutuzov chose a very good position for the Russian forces. The right flank was protected by a natural obstacle — the river Koloch and the left artificial earthworks — flush, occupied by the troops of Bagration. In the centre were placed the troops of General N. N. Rajewski, as well as artillery positions. The plan of Napoleon provided for the breach of Russian troops near the Bagrationovskaya flushes and the environment of Kutuzov's army, and when it will be pressed to the river — it is a complete rout.
Eight of the attacks took the French against flushes, but never was able to capture. They only managed to move slightly in the center, destroying the battery Rajewski. In the midst of battle in the Central direction of Russian cavalry made a daring RAID behind enemy that sowed panic in the ranks of the attackers.
Napoleon did not dare to enact your biggest reserve of the old guard to turn the tide of battle. Borodino battle ended late in the evening, and the troops retreated to previously held positions. Thus, the battle was a political and moral victory of the Russian army.
1 (13) September, at Fili, at the meeting of the commanders, Kutuzov decided to leave Moscow to save the army. Napoleon's troops entered Moscow and stayed there till October of 1812 Meanwhile Kutuzov made his plan called the "Tarutino maneuver," by which Napoleon lost the ability to track the locations of Russian. In the village of Tarutino Kutuzov's army was replenished with 120 thousand people, has significantly strengthened its artillery and cavalry. In addition, she effectively closed the French troops on the way to the Tula, where the principal arsenals of weapons and the provision warehouses.
During his stay in Moscow the French army was demoralized by hunger, looting, fires that engulfed the city. In the hope to replenish their arsenals and food supplies, Napoleon was forced to withdraw its army from Moscow. On the way to Maloyaroslavets 12 (24) October, Napoleon's army suffered a serious defeat and began to retreat from Russia on the already ravaged by the French Smolensk road.
At the final stage of the war tactics of the Russian army was to parallel the pursuit of the enemy. Russian troops,
join the battle with Napoleon and destroyed his army retreating in parts. Seriously affected the French and from the winter frost, which was not ready, as Napoleon hoped to end the war before the cold weather. The culmination of the war of 1812 was the battle of the river Berezina, which ended with the defeat of Napoleon's army.
25 Dec 1812 in St. Petersburg, Emperor Alexander I issued a Manifesto stating that the war of the Russian people against the French invaders ended in complete victory and the expulsion of the enemy.
the Russian army took part in foreign campaigns of 1813-1814, in which, together with the Prussian, Swedish, English and Austrian armies finished off the enemy in Germany and France. The campaign of 1813 ended with the defeat of Napoleon in the battle of Leipzig. After the capture of Paris by allied troops in the spring of 1814, Napoleon I abdicated.
the First quarter of the XIX century in Russian history was the period of formation of the revolutionary movement and its ideology. After the foreign campaigns of the Russian army advanced ideas began to penetrate into the Russian Empire. There was the first secret revolutionary organization of the nobility. Most of them were military officers of the guard.
the First secret political society was founded in 1816 in St. Petersburg under the name "Union of salvation", which was renamed the following year in "the Society of true and loyal sons of the Fatherland". Its members were future December risty A. I. Muravyov, M. I. Muraviev-Apostol, P. I. Pestel, S. P. Trubetskoy, etc. the Goal that they set for themselves, the Constitution, the representation, the elimination of serfdom. However, this society was still small and was not able to fulfill the tasks which it set itself.
In 1818 on the basis of this samolikvidirovalsja companies created a new "Union of welfare". It was already more numerous secret organization, numbering more than 200 people. Its organizers are F. N. Glinka, F. P. Tolstoy, M. I. Muravyev-Apostol. The organization had branched character: her cell was created in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Tambov, in the South of the country. The purpose of the society remained the same — the introduction of representative government, the elimination of the autocracy and serfdom. The way to achieve their goal, the members of the Union seen in the advocacy of their views and proposals to the government. However, the response they have not heard.
All this prompted radical members of society to the creation of two new secret organizations, established in March 1825 One was established in St. Petersburg and was called "Northern society". Its founders were N. M.Ants and N. And.Turgenev. The other occurred in the Ukraine. This "Southern society," was headed by P. I. Pestel. Both companies were related and was in fact a single organization. Each society had its own policy document, the North is "the Constitution" N.M.Muraveva, and South — "the Russian truth", written by P. Pestel.
These documents have expressed a common goal — the destruction of autocracy and serfdom. However, the "Constitution" expressed the liberal nature of the reforms — a constitutional monarchy, the limitation of electoral rights and the preservation of landlordism, and the "Russian truth" — a radical Republican. She was proclaimed a presidential Republic, the confiscation of landed estates and a mix of private and public forms of ownership.
the coup conspirators had planned to commit in the summer of 1826 during army exercises. But suddenly, on 19 November 1825 Alexander I died, and this event prompted the conspirators to action ahead of schedule.
the Russian Emperor after the death of Alexander I was to become his brother Konstantin Pavlovich, however, during the life of Alexander I, he abdicated in favor of his younger brother Nicholas. It was not officially announced, therefore, the initial state apparatus, the army swore allegiance to Constantine. But was soon made public the refusal of Constantine from the throne and appointed perepiska. Therefore,
members of the "Northern society" decided to make December 14, 1825 with the requirements laid down in the program, which expects to make a demonstration of military force in front of the Senate. An important task was to prevent the oath of the senators, Nikolai Pavlovich. The leader of the rebellion was proclaimed Prince S. P. Trubetskoy.
on 14 December 1825 on the Senate square came the first Moscow regiment, led by members of the "Northern society" brothers Bestuzhevykh and Sepinum-Rostov. However, the regiment for a long time stood alone, the conspirators were inactive. The killing of the rebels went to the General-Governor of Petersburg, Miloradovich, was fatal — the rebellion could not end peacefully. By mid-afternoon the rebels yet joined the guards naval crew and the company of Leib-Grenadier regiment.
Executives are still slow to start active actions. Moreover, it appeared that the senators had already sworn allegiance to Nicholas I and left the Senate. Therefore, the "Manifesto" was to show no one, and Prince Trubetskoy to the area and did not come. Meanwhile, loyalist forces began shelling the rebels. The uprising was suppressed, the arrests began. Members of the "southern society" attempted to carry out the uprising in the first days of January, 1826 (the uprising of the Chernigov regiment), but it was brutally suppressed by the authorities. Five leaders of the rebellion — P. I. Pestel, K. F. Ryleev, S. I. Muraviev-Apostol, M. P. Bestuzhev-Rumin and P. G. Kakhovsky was executed, the other participants were exiled to hard labor in Siberia.
the Decembrist Revolt was the first open protest in Russia, aims a radical reorganization of society.
In the history of Russia in the reign of Emperor Nicholas I is defined as the apogee of the Russian autocracy. The revolutionary turmoil that accompanied the accession to the throne of the Russian Emperor, has left its mark on all his work. In the eyes of his contemporaries, he was perceived as a suppressor of freedom, freethinking, as an unlimited ruler-a despot. The Emperor believed in the destructiveness of human freedom and autonomy of companies. In his opinion, the prosperity of the country could be ensured only through strict procedure, the strict performance of each subject of the Russian Empire of their duties, control and regulation of public life.
Considering that to solve the issue of prosperity is possible only from above, Nicholas I formed the "Committee of December 6, 1826". The Committee's tasks included the preparation of bills of change. In 1826, the accounts and the transformation of "his Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery" in the most important organ of state power and control. Most important tasks were set before the II and III compartments. Part II was occupied with the codification of the laws, III — involved in the Affairs of high politics. For solving problems it got to the submission of the corps of gendarmes and thus control over all aspects of public life. At the head of the third section was placed close to the all-powerful Emperor, count A. H. Benkendorf.
However, over-centralization of power has not led to positive results. The Supreme court drowned in a sea of papers and lost control over the progress of Affairs on the ground that led to red tape and abuse.
To solve the peasant question was created ten successive secret committees. The outcome, however, their activities were insignificant. The most important event in the peasant question can be considered the reform of the state village 1837, the State peasants were given self-government, cited in the order and management. It was revised levying taxes and granting land. In 1842 the decree on the serfs, under which the landlord acquired the right to release the peasants at will, providing them with land but not to own the liability, and in use. 1844 changed the situation of peasants in Western parts of the country. But this was not done to improve the situation of the peasants, and in the interests of power, stremel
objective to limit the influence local, opposition-oriented non-Russian nobility.
With the penetration of the economic life of capitalist relations and the gradual erosion of the caste system was related to the changes in social organisation — increased ranks, giving the nobility, and the growing commercial and industrial segments was introduced as a new class — the honorary citizenship.
Control over public life has led to changes in the field of education. In 1828 a reform was implemented in lower and middle schools. Education were of class character, i.e. the stage of the school was cut off from each other: elementary and parish — farmers, County — city inhabitants, the school for nobles. In 1835 saw the light of the new University Charter, which reduced the autonomy of higher educational institutions.
a Wave of European bourgeois revolutions in Europe 1848-1849, horrified Nicholas I, led to the so-called "gloomy seven years", when the limit was tightened censorship, control, rampant secret police. The most progressive-minded people looming shadow of despair. This last phase of the reign of Nicholas I in fact was already the agony of the system that he created.
Last years of the reign of Nicholas I took place on the background of complications of foreign policy in Russia associated with the aggravation of the Eastern question. The conflict was caused by the problems associated with trade in the middle East, which fought Russia, France and England. Turkey, in turn, hoped for revenge for the defeat in wars with Russia. Didn't want to miss your chance and Austria wanted to expand its sphere of influence on the Turkish possessions in the Balkans.
the Direct reason for the war was the old conflict between the Catholic and Orthodox Church for control over the Holy places for Christians in Palestine. Supported by France, Turkey rejected Russia's claim to the priority of the Orthodox Church in this matter. In June 1853, Russia broke off diplomatic relations with Turkey and occupied the Danubian principalities. In response, the Turkish Sultan 4 Oct 1853 declared war on Russia.
Turkey relied on the ongoing war in the North Caucasus and had rebelled against Russia mountaineers all help, including and carried out the landing of his fleet on the Caucasian coast. In response, on 18 November 1853, the Russian fleet under the command of Admiral P. S. Nakhimov completely defeated the Turkish fleet in the roadstead of Sinope Bay. This sea battle was the pretext for entering the war of France and England. In December 1853 the United English and French squadron entered the Black sea in March 1854 followed by a Declaration of war.
who Came to South Russia, the war showed the complete backwardness of Russia, the weakness of its industrial capacity and unpreparedness of the military command for war under new conditions. The Russian army is inferior to almost all indicators — the number of steam ships, rifles, artillery. Due to the lack of Railways bad was the case with the supply of Russian army equipment, ammunition and food.
during the summer campaign of 1854, Russia was able to successfully resist the enemy. In several battles was defeated Turkish troops. The English and French fleets tried to attack the Russian position in the Baltic, Black, and White seas and in the far East, but to no avail. In July 1854 Russia had to accept the Austrian ultimatum to leave the Danubian principalities. From September, 1854 turned the main fighting in the Crimea.
mistakes of the Russian command allowed the allied troops to successfully carry out a landing in the Crimea, and on 8 September 1854 to defeat the Russian troops at the river Alma and siege of Sevastopol. The defense of Sevastopol under the leadership of admirals V. A. Kornilov, P. S. Nakhimov, V. I. Istomin lasted 349 days. Attempts of the Russian army under the command of Prince A. S. Menshikov to pull the part of the besieging force were unsuccessful.
August 27, 1855, French troops stormed the southern part of Sevastopol and seized the dominant over the city height — Malakhov Kurgan. Russian troops were forced to leave the city. As the forces of the battling sides were depleted, March 18, 1856. in Paris was signed the peace Treaty, under which the Black sea was declared neutral, the Russian fleet was reduced to a minimum, and destroyed the fortifications. Similar demands had been made and Turkey. However, since the exit from the Black sea were in the hands of Turkey, this decision seriously threatened Russia's security. In addition, Russia lost the mouth of the Danube and southern Bessarabia, but also lost the right to protect Serbia, Moldavia and Wallachia. Thus, Russia lost its positions in the middle East, France and England. Its prestige in the international arena have been severely curtailed.
the Development of capitalist relations in pre-reform Russia was becoming increasingly conflict with the feudal system. The defeat in the Crimean war exposed the rottenness and impotence of the serf of Russia. The crisis policy of the ruling feudal class, which could no longer hold her still, feudal methods. The need was urgent economic, social and political reforms in order to prevent a revolutionary explosion in the country. In the agenda of the country became necessary in order not only to preserve but also to strengthen social and economic foundations of the autocracy.
All of this well aware of the new Russian Emperor Alexander II came to the throne on 19 February 1855 He understood the need for concessions and compromise in the interests of national life. After his accession to the throne the young Emperor entered to the Cabinet of his brother Constantine, who was a staunch liberal. The next steps of the Emperor was also progressive — allowed free travel abroad, was pardoned the Decembrists, partially lifted the censorship on publications, held other liberal activities.
With great seriousness Alexander II and to the problem of the abolition of serfdom. Since the end of 1857 in Russia was established a number of committees and commissions whose main task was the solution of the question of the liberation of the peasantry from serfdom. In early 1859 for summing and processing the projects of the Advisory committees and the Drafting Committee. They have established the project was handed over to the government.
February 19, 1861 Alexander II issued the emancipation of the peasants and "Regulations" governing their new state. According to these documents, the Russian peasants were given personal freedom and most civil rights, introduced the peasant self-government, whose duties included collecting taxes and certain judicial powers. This preserves the farming community and communal ownership of land. The peasants still had to pay a poll tax and to carry conscription. As before, against the peasants used corporal punishment.
the Government considered that the normal development of the agricultural sector will provide an opportunity to co-exist two types of farms: large landlords and peasant. However, the peasants were given land for allotments less then 20% of those plots, which they enjoyed before liberation. This greatly complicated the development of the farm, and in some cases have reduced him to nothing. Obtained the land the peasants had to pay land owners the foreclosure, exceeds the cost in half. But it was impossible, so 80% of the cost of the land to the landowners pay the state. Thus, the peasants became debtors of the state and were obliged to return this amount within 50 years with interest. Anyway, the reform has created significant opportunities for the agricultural development of Russia, although has retained some remnants in the form of caste separateness of the peasantry and communities.
the Peasant reform resulted in a transformation of many aspects of social and political life of the country. 1864 was the year of birth of the Zemstvos — local self-government bodies. The sphere of competence of the Zemstvos was broad: they had the right to collect taxes for local needs and to hire employees, was in charge of economic issues, schools, medical institutions, and philanthropy.
Touched on the reform and city life. Since 1870, the authorities began to form in the cities. They were in charge mainly of the economic life. Governing body received the name of the city Duma, which formed the Council. The leader of the Council and the Executive body was the mayor. The Duma is elected by the city voters, which was formed in accordance with the social and property qualification.
However, the most radical was the judicial reform in 1864 of the Former class, and an indoor court was cancelled. Now the sentence in the reformed court shall issue the jurors who were members of the public. The process became public, oral and adversarial. On behalf of the state at trial was the Prosecutor-the Prosecutor, and the defence was conducted by lawyer — barrister.
has Not been overlooked by the media and educational institutions. In 1863 and 1864. entered a new University charters, returned them autonomy. Adopted a new regulation on schools, in which care was taken over by the state, zemstva and municipal councils, and the Church. Education was declared available to all classes and denominations. In 1865 were removed prior censorship on the publication and responsibility for already published articles was entrusted to the publishers.
Serious reforms were conducted and army. Russia was divided into fifteen military districts. Changing military educational institutions and military field court. Instead of recruitment 1874 introduced universal military service. The transformation also touched the field of Finance, of the Orthodox clergy and Church schools.
All of these reforms, called "the great", brought the socio-political system of Russia in accordance with the requirements of the second half of the nineteenth century, mobilized all sectors of society on national goals. Was the first step to the formation of legal state and civil society. Russia became the new capitalist path of development.
After the death of Alexander II in March 1881 in a terrorist attack organized by the people, members of a secret organization of Russian utopian socialists to the Russian throne his son, Alexander III. At the beginning of his reign the government was dominated by confusion: not knowing anything about the forces of the populists, Alexander III did not dare to dismiss the supporters of liberal reforms of his father.
However, the first steps of state Alexander III showed that the new Emperor was not going to sympathize with liberalism. Were greatly improved penal system. In 1881 it was approved the "regulations about measures for the preservation of state security and public peace". This document expanded the powers of the governors, gave them the right to impose a state of emergency for an unlimited period and to carry out any repressive actions. There was "security Department" administered by the gendarmerie corps, whose activity was aimed at suppression and suppression of any illegal activity.
In 1882, steps were taken to tighten censorship, and in 1884 educational institutions were effectively deprived of its self. The government of Alexander III shut down liberal publications has increased several
once the tuition fee. Decree of 1887 on "cooks children" was hampered access to higher education institutions and school children of the lower classes. In the late 80-ies accepted the reactionary laws which in fact has repealed several provisions of the reforms 60-70-ies of the
So, preserved and entrenched peasant class isolation, and the power was transferred to officials from the local landowners, connecting in their hands judicial and administrative powers. A new provincial law and city regulations not only considerably reduced the autonomy of local self-government, but in the several times reduced the number of voters. Was performed changes in the activities of the court.
the Reactionary government of Alexander III was also manifested in the socio-economic sphere. Attempt to protect the interests ruined landlords led to the tightening of policy towards the peasantry. To prevent the emergence of a rural bourgeoisie was limited to family sections of the peasants and raised obstacles to the alienation of peasant holdings.
However, in the complicated international situation, the government could not encourage the development of capitalist relations, primarily in the field of industrial production. Priority was given to the company ATEM and industries of strategic importance. Policy promotion and state protection that had led to their turning into monopolies. As a result of these actions was growing threatening imbalances that could lead to economic and social shocks.
the Reaction conversion 1880-1890-ies called " counter-reforms ". Its success was due to the absence in the Russian society forces that would be able to create a valid opposition to government policy. To top it all off they are extremely aggravated relations between the government and the society. However, their goals counter-reforms not achieved: the society was already impossible to stop in its development.
At the turn of the two centuries of Russian capitalism began to develop into its highest stage — imperialism. Bourgeois relations, becoming dominant, demanded the elimination of the vestiges of feudalism and create the conditions for further progressive development of society. Already developed the main classes of bourgeois society — the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, the latter was more homogeneous, is associated with the same adversities and difficulties, concentrated in the large industrial centers of the country, and mobile more receptive towards progressive innovation. Necessary was the only political party that could unite the different groups, armed to the programme and tactics of the struggle.
At the beginning of XX century in Russia there was a revolutionary situation. Was the division of political forces into three camps — the government, the liberal-bourgeois and democratic. The liberal-bourgeois camp was represented by the supporters of the so-called "Union of liberation", aims to establish in Russia a constitutional monarchy, the introduction of General elections, protecting the "interests of workers", etc. After the creation of the cadet party (constitutional Democrats), "Union of liberation" ceased operations.
the Social democratic movement that emerged in the 90-ies of the XIX century was represented by the supporters of the Russian social-democratic labour party (RSDLP) in 1903 divided into two movements — the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin and Mensheviks. In addition, the RSDLP this included the social revolutionaries (the party of socialist revolutionaries).
After the death of Emperor Alexander III in 1894 on the throne his son Nicholas I. Easily amenable to outside influences, not having a strong and solid character, Nicholas II was a weak politician, whose actions in foreign and domestic policy of the country have plunged her into an abyss of disasters that began with the defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905, and the Incompetence of the Russian generals and the Tsar's inner circle, sent to massacre thousands of Russian
soldiers and sailors, further escalate the situation in the country.
the Russian revolution
Extremely deteriorating situation of the people, a complete inability of the government to resolve the urgent problems of development of the country, the defeat in the Russo-Japanese war were the main causes of the first Russian revolution. The reason for it was the shooting of demonstrating workers in St. Petersburg on 9 January 1905, the shot caused an explosion of indignation in wide circles of Russian society. Riots broke out and the excitement in all parts of the country. The movement of discontent is gradually adopted organized. He was joined by the Russian peasantry. In war with Japan and the complete unpreparedness for such events, the government had neither the strength nor the means to suppress multiple appearances. As a means of reducing tension, the tsarist government announced the creation of a representative organ — the State Duma. The fact of neglecting the interests of the masses from the beginning set a thought in position dead-born body, because of the powers it didn't have any.
the attitude of the authorities led to increasing dissatisfaction on the part of the proletariat and the peasantry, and liberal-minded representatives of the Russian bourgeoisie. Therefore, by the autumn of 1905 in Russia was created all the conditions for the maturing of a national crisis.
Losing control of the situation, the tsarist government made more concessions. In October, 1905. Nicholas II signed the Manifesto, which gave the Russians freedom of the press, speech, Assembly and Association, that laid the foundations of Russian democracy. This Manifest is split in the revolutionary movement. The revolutionary wave has lost its breadth and mass. This may explain the defeat of the December armed uprising in Moscow in 1905, which was the highest point of the development of the first Russian revolution.
In the circumstances to the fore liberal circles. There were numerous political parties, the cadets (constitutional Democrats), Octobrists (Union of October 17). A notable event was co-building organizations Patriotic — "reactionaries". Revolution was on the decline.
In 1906 the Central event in the life of the country was no longer a revolutionary movement, and the election in the II State Duma. The new Duma was not able to resist the government and was disbanded in 1907 as a Manifesto on the dissolution of the Duma was promulgated on 3 June, political system in Russia, lasted until February 1917, called on the third of June monarchy.
Russia in the First world war
Russia's Participation in the First world war was due to the exacerbation of the Russian-German contradictions caused by the formation of Triple Alliance and Entente. Murder in the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina the city of Sarajevo of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne was the reason for the outbreak of hostilities. In 1914, along with the actions of the German troops on the Western front, the Russian command launched an invasion of East Prussia. It was stopped by German troops. But in the district of Galicia, the troops of the Austro-Hungarian Empire suffered a serious defeat. The result of the campaign of 1914 was the establishment of equilibrium on the fronts and the transition to trench warfare.
In 1915, the center of gravity of the fighting was transferred to the Eastern front. From spring to August, the Russian the front throughout its length has been hacked by German troops. Russian troops were forced to leave Poland, Lithuania and Galicia, suffering heavy losses.
In 1916, the situation has changed. In June, troops under the command of General Brusilov broke through the Austro-Hungarian front in Galicia to Bukovina. This offensive was halted by the enemy with great difficulty. Military action 1917 occurred in a clearly-standing political crisis in the country. In Russia, the February bourgeois-democratic revolution, which resulted in the substitution of autocracy the Provisional government was hostage to the obligations of the tsarist government. The course is the continuation of the war to the bitter end led to the aggravation of the situation in the country and to the rise to power of the Bolsheviks.
the First world war dramatically intensified all the contradictions that were brewing in Russia in the early XX century. Casualties, destruction of economy, hunger, the discontent of the people measures of the tsarist government to overcome the looming national crisis, the inability of the autocracy to compromise with the bourgeoisie were the main reasons for the February revolution of 1917. On February 23 in Petrograd workers went on strike which soon turned into all-Russian. Work was supported by the intelligentsia, the students,
army. The peasantry also did not remain aloof from these events. Already on 27 February, the power in the capital passed into the hands of the Soviet of workers ' deputies, the head of which stood the Mensheviks.
the Petrograd Soviet controlled the army, which soon completely switched to the side of the rebels. Attempts of a punitive campaign undertaken by the forces taken from the front of the troops, was unsuccessful. The soldiers supported the February coup. March 1, 1917 in Petrograd had formed a Provisional government composed mainly of representatives of the bourgeois parties. Nicholas II abdicated. Thus, the February revolution overthrew the monarchy that had held the progressive development of the country. The relative ease with which the overthrow of tsarism in Russia, showed how the regime of Nicholas II and his support of landlord-bourgeois circles — were weak in their attempts to retain power.
the February bourgeois-democratic revolution of 1917 had a political character. Pressing economic, social and national problems of the country she could not solve. The provisional government the real power is not possessed. The alternative is his power — the Councils established at the beginning of the events of February, while controlled by the SRS and men-a s in standards, supported the Provisional government, however, has not yet been able to take a leading role in implementing radical reforms in the country. But at this point, the Soviets supported both the army and the revolutionary people. Therefore, in March — early July 1917 in Russia there was a so-called diarchy — that is, the simultaneous existence of the two authorities.
Finally the petty-bourgeois parties, which had then the majority in the Soviets ceded power to the Interim government in result of the July crisis of 1917, the fact that at the end of June — early July on the Eastern front, German troops launched a powerful counteroffensive. Not wanting to go to the front, the soldiers of the Petrograd garrison decided or-hansavati the uprising under the leadership of the Bolsheviks and anarchists. The resignation of some Ministers in the Interim government further escalate the situation. Among the Bolsheviks about what is happening there was no consensus. Lenin and some members of the Central Committee of the party considered the uprising premature.
on 3 July in the capital began mass demonstrations. Despite the fact that the Bolsheviks tried to turn the demonstrators in a peaceful way, the clashes broke out between demonstrators and troops under the control of the Petrograd Soviet. The provisional government, seize the initiative, with the help of troops arriving from the front, began to implement tough measures. The demonstrators were shot. Since then, the leadership of the Council gave full authority to the Interim government.
the dual power ended. The Bolsheviks were forced to go underground. Began a decisive offensive power at all dissatisfied with the policy of the government.
By the autumn of 1917, the country was again brewing national crisis, created the ground for a new revolution. The collapse of the economy, the intensification of the revolutionary movement, increased authority of the Bolsheviks and support for their actions in various sectors of society, the disintegration of the army that had suffered defeat after defeat on the battlefields of the First world war, growing mistrust of the masses toward the Provisional government, as well as an unsuccessful attempt of a military coup made by General Kornilov, — these are symptoms of the maturing of a new revolutionary explosion.
Gradual Bolshevization of the Soviets, the army, the frustration of the proletariat and the peasantry in the ability of the Interim government to find a way out of the crisis made it possible to nominate the Bolsheviks slogan "All power to the Soviets", which in Petrograd on 24-25 October 1917, they managed to make a coup called the great October revolution. At the II all-Russian Congress of Soviets on 25 October it was announced about the transition of power in the country to the Bolsheviks. The provisional government was arrested. The Congress promulgated the first decrees of the Soviet power "On the world", "On land", formed the first government of the victorious Bolshevik Council of people's Commissars, headed by V. I. Lenin. November 2, 1917, Soviet power was established in Moscow. Almost everywhere, the army supported the Bolsheviks. By March 1918, the new revolutionary power established throughout the country.
the Creation of a new state apparatus, natalkivaetsya at first, on the stubborn resistance of the old bureaucracy, was completed by the beginning of 1918. At the III all-Russian Congress of Soviets in January 1918, Russia was proclaimed a Republic of Soviets of workers', soldiers 'and peasants' deputies. The Russian Soviet Federative socialist Republic (RSFSR) was established as a Federation of Soviet national republics. Its highest body was the Congress of Soviets; in the intervals between congresses, worked the all-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTSIK), possessed legislative authority.
Government — Council of people's Commissars is formed through the people's commissariats (the people's commissariats) exercised Executive power, people's courts and revolutionary tribunals — the power of the judiciary. Was established special authorities — the Supreme Council of national economy (SEC), responsible for the regulation of the economy and the processes of nationalization of industry, the all-Russian extraordinary Commission (VCHK) for fighting counter-revolution. The main feature of the new state apparatus was a fusion of legislative and Executive power in the country.
For the successful construction of the new state, the Bolsheviks needed was peace. Therefore, from December, 1917, negotiations began with the command of the German army on the conclusion of a separate peace Treaty, which was signed in March 1918, His conditions for Soviet Russia was difficult and even humiliating. Russia refused from Poland, Estonia and Latvia withdraw its troops from Finland and Ukraine, inferior region of the Caucasus. However, this "obscene" in the words of Lenin himself, the world was indispensable the young Soviet Republic. Thanks to a interval of peace, the Bolsheviks were able to carry out the first economic activities in the city and in the village — to establish workers ' control in industry, to start it nationalization, to begin social change in the village.
However, the ensuing transformation was interrupted for a long time in a bloody civil war, triggered by the forces of internal counterrevolution in the spring of 1918. In Siberia against the Soviets was made by the Cossacks of ataman Semenov, in the South, in the Cossack districts were formed don army of Krasnov and Denikin's Volunteer army
in the Kuban. Broke out the SR revolts in Murom, Rybinsk, Yaroslavl. Almost simultaneously on the territory of Soviet Russia landed troops of the interventionists (in the North — the British, Americans, French, the far East — the Japanese, Germany occupied the territory of Belarus, Ukraine, Baltic States, British troops occupied Baku). In may 1918, the Czechoslovak corps.
the situation on the fronts of the country was very difficult. Only in December 1918, troops of the red army managed to stop the offensive of the troops of General Krasnov on the southern front. From the East the Bolsheviks were threatened by Admiral Kolchak sought to the Volga. He managed to capture Ufa, Izhevsk and other cities. However, by the summer of 1919, he was thrown back to the Urals. The result of the summer offensive of General Yudenich in 1919, a threat looms now over Petrograd. Only after bloody battles in June 1919 managed to eliminate the threat of capture of the Northern capital of Russia (by that time the Soviet government moved to Moscow).
However, in July 1919, the offensive launched by the troops of General Denikin from the South to the Central regions of the country now, and Moscow has turned into a military camp. By October 1919, the Bolsheviks lost in Odessa, Kiev, Kursk, Voronezh and the eagle. Troops of the red army only at the cost of huge losses managed to repel the offensive of Denikin's troops.
In November 1919, was finally defeated Yudenich's troops, which during the autumn offensive again threatened Petrograd. In the winter of 1919-1920, the Red army liberated the Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk. Kolchak was captured and executed. At the beginning of 1920, freeing Donbas and Ukraine, the red army drove the white-Gvardeytsev in the Crimea. Only in November 1920, the Crimea was cleared of the troops of General Wrangel. Setback for the Bolsheviks ended the Polish campaign the spring and summer of 1920.
From the policy of "military communism" to new economic policy
the Economic policy of the Soviet state during the civil war, aimed at mobilizing all resources to the military, called the policy of "war communism." It was a set of emergency measures in the country's economy, which was characterized by traits such as nationalization of industry, centralized management, the introduction of the surplus in the village, the ban of private trade and the equalization in the distribution and payment. In terms of the coming peace life, it is no longer justified. The country was on the verge of economic collapse. Industry, energy, transport, agriculture, and finances of the country have experienced a protracted crisis. Frequent demonstrations of the peasants, dissatisfied with the surplus. Mutiny in Kronstadt in March 1921 against the Soviet government showed that discontent with the policy of "war communism" could threaten their very existence.
the Consequence of all these causes was the decision of the government of the Bolsheviks in March 1921 to go to the "new economic policy" (NEP). This policy provided for the replacement of requisitioning by a fixed tax in kind to the peasantry, the transfer of state enterprises to self-financing, the resolution of private trade. However, the transition from natural to monetary compensation, the equalization is canceled. Partially allowed elements of state capitalism in industry in the form of concessions and the creation of the state trusts associated with the market. Allowed to open a small handicraft private enterprise serviced by the employees.
the biggest achievement of the NEP was that on the side of the Soviet government finally passed the peasant masses. Conditions were created for the restoration industry and the rise of production. The granting of some economic freedom for workers gave them the opportunity for initiative and enterprise. NEP, in fact, demonstrated the possibility and necessity of diverse forms of ownership, recognition of market and commodity relations in the economy.
In the years 1918-1922. small and compactly living on the territory of Russia, the Nations received in the RSFSR autonomy. Parallel to this was the formation of larger national entities — the Union with the Federation of sovereign Soviet republics. By the summer of 1922, the process of unification of the Soviet republics has entered its final phase. The Soviet party leadership prepared a draft of Association, providing for the entry of the Soviet republics in the RSFSR as an Autonomous entity. The author of this project was Stalin, then Commissar for nationalities.
Lenin saw in this project, the infringement of the national sovereignty of the peoples, and insisted on the creation of a Federation of equal Soviet republics. On 30 December 1922 the first Congress of Soviets of the Union of Soviet socialist republics rejected the "project of autonomy" of Stalin and adopted the Declaration and Treaty establishing the USSR, which had at its core the plan of the Federal structure, which insisted Lenin.
In January 1924 the second all-Russian Congress of Soviets approved the Constitution of the new Union. According to this Constitution, the USSR was a Federation of equal sovereign republics with the right of free secession from the Union. Simultaneously there was a design representative and Executive bodies of the Union. However, as will be show further developments of the Soviet Union gradually acquired the character of a unitary state, governed from a single center — Moscow.
With the introduction of the new economic policy pursued by the Soviet government actions for its implementation (the denationalization of certain businesses, the permission of free trade and wage labor, a focus on the development of commodity-money and market relations, etc.) came into conflict with the concept of building a socialist society on-paper-only basis. The priority of politics over Economics preached by the party of the Bolsheviks started the formation of the administrative-command system led to the crisis of the NEP in 1923, in order to improve the productivity of the state has artificially inflated the prices of industrial goods. The villagers were not afford to buy manufactured goods, which overflowed all the warehouses and shops of the cities. Clearly evident the so-called "crisis of overproduction". In response, the village began to delay the delivery of grain to the state for taxes. In some places peasant uprising broke out. Need a new concessions to the peasantry by the state.
Thanks to successfully a monetary ðåôîðìå1924 G. ruble was stable, which helped to overcome the sales crisis and strengthen trade relations towns and villages. Natural taxation of the peasants was replaced by the money that gave them greater freedom to develop their own economy. Overall, thus, by the mid 20-ies in the USSR, the process of recovery of the economy. The socialist sector of the economy has significantly strengthened its position.
At the same time an improvement of the positions of the USSR in the international arena. To break the diplomatic blockade of the Soviet diplomacy took an active part in international conferences of the early 20-ies. The leadership of the Bolshevik party hoped to establish economic and political cooperation with leading capitalist countries.
At an international conference in Genoa on economic and financial Affairs (1922), the Soviet delegation expressed readiness to discuss the issue of compensation of former foreign owners in Russia at UEL-Wii to recognize the new state, and provide international loans. At the same time the Soviet side made counter-proposals on compensation for Soviet Russia for losses caused by intervention and blockade during the civil war. However, in the course of the conference these questions have not been addressed.
But the young Soviet Diplomacy managed to break the United front of non-recognition of the young Soviet Republic from the capitalist encirclement. In Rapallo, a suburb
Genoa, managed to conclude a Treaty with Germany, providing for the restoration of diplomatic relations between the two countries on the mutual waiver of all claims. Thanks to this success of Soviet diplomacy, the country has entered a period of admission of the leading capitalist powers. In a short time established diplomatic relations with Britain, Italy, Austria, Sweden, China, Mexico, France and other countries.
the Necessity of modernization of industry and the entire economy in the capitalist environment has become the main task of the Soviet government since the early 20-ies. During these years, there has been a process of strengthening the control and regulation of the economy by the state. This led to the development of the first five-year development plan of national economy of the USSR. In the first five-year plan, adopted in April 1929, was laid down indicators sharp, accelerated growth of industrial production.
In this regard, clearly delineated problem is the lack of funds for the implementation of the industrial breakthrough. Investment in new industrial construction lacked. For help from abroad count was impossible. Therefore, one of the sources of industrialization, the country's steel resources are siphoned off by the state's fledgling agriculture. Another source of steel, government loans, which was charged with the entire population of the country. To pay for foreign supplies industrial equipment the state has forced the removal of gold and other valuables as the population and the Church. Another source of industrialization was to export the country's natural resources — oil, timber. Exported grain, fur.
against the background of lack of funds, technical and economic backwardness of the country, lack of qualified personnel, the state has become artificially spur the pace of industrial construction, which led to imbalances, disruption of planning, mismatch between wage growth and productivity, the breakdown of the monetary system and price growth. In the end, found a goods shortage, introduced a card system supply of the population.
the Command-administrative system of economic governance, accompanied by the formation of the regime of personal power of Stalin, all the difficulties of implementation of the industrialization plans were cancelled due to some enemies that hinder the construction of socialism in the USSR. In 1928-1931. swept the country a wave of political processes, which were condemned as "pests", many qualified specialists and managers, allegedly restraining the processes of economic development of the country.
however, The first five-year plan thanks to the huge enthusiasm of the Soviet people was prematurely implemented according to its main indicators. In the period from 1929 to the late 1930's years the Soviet Union has made fantastic strides in its industrial development. During this time, came into operation about 6 thousand industrial enterprises. The Soviet people have created such industrial potential, which according to its technical equipment and the industrial structure is not inferior to the level of production in the advanced capitalist countries of the time. And in terms of production, our country ranks second after the United States.
accelerate the pace of industrialization mainly due to rural areas with emphasis on basic industries is very quickly sharpened the contradictions of the new economic policy. The late 20-ies was marked by its overthrow. This process was stimulated by the fear of the administrative-command structures facing the prospect of losing management of the economy in their own interests.
In the agriculture of the country was growing difficulties. In some cases, this crisis of power out by the method of violent response that was comparable with the practice of war communism and the surplus. In the fall of 1929 such violent actions against agricultural producers was replaced by a compulsory, or, as they said, solid collectivization. At the end of the village with the help of punitive measures for a short time was removed all potentially dangerous, as the Soviet leadership felt that the elements — kulaks, wealthy farmers, that is those who collectivization could prevent normal development private sector and who could resist it.
the Destructive nature of forced Association of peasants in collective farms and forced the authorities to abandon the extremes of this process. Became adhered to the voluntary membership in the collective. The main form of collective farms was declared an agricultural marketing cooperative where the farmers had the right to receive an allotment, small equipment and livestock. However, land, oxen and basic farm implements continued to socialize. Such collectivization in the main grain regions of the country was completed by the end of 1931.
the Winning of the Soviet state collectivization was very important. To eliminate the roots of capitalism in agriculture, and also undesirable class elements. The country gained independence from the import of certain agricultural products. The grain, sold abroad, has become a source for the acquisition of sophisticated technology and advanced machinery required in the course of industrialization.
However, the consequences of the breakdown of the traditional economic structure in the village was very heavy. The productive forces of agriculture has been undermined. Crop failures 1932-1933, unreasonably high plans to supply agricultural products to the state has led to famine in some areas of the country, the consequences of which to liquidate was not immediately apparent.
Transformations in the field of culture was one of the tasks of building a socialist state in the USSR. The peculiarities of the cultural revolution was determined by the backwardness of the country, inherited from the old times, the uneven economic and cultural development of the peoples that became part of the Soviet Union. The Bolshevik government focused on the construction of the public education system, the restructuring of higher schools, enhancing the role of science in the economy, generating new creative and artistic intelligentsia.
Even during the civil war, the struggle with illiteracy. With 1931 introduced universal primary education. The greatest successes in public education was achieved by the end of 30-ies. In the system of higher schools together with the old experts have implemented measures to create so-called "people's intelligentsia" by increasing the number of students from among workers and peasants. Significant progress has been achieved in the field of science. Research N.Vavilov (genetics), V. Vernadsky (Geochemistry, biosphere).Zhukovsky (aerodynamics) and other scientists became famous all over the world.
compared To the success of some areas of science have experienced the pressure from the administrative-command system. Significant harm was caused to the social Sciences — history, philosophy, etc. of various ideological purges and bullying of individuals. As a result, almost all of the then science was subordinated to the ideological ideas of the Communist regime.
By the early 30-ies in the USSR for the design of the economic model of society, which can be defined as state-administrative socialism. According to the opinion of Stalin and his entourage, the basis of this model was to lie full
the nationalization of all means of production in industry, the implementation of the collectivization of farms. In these circumstances, is very much entrenched command-administrative methods of management and control of the economy.
the Priority of ideology over the economy amid the domination of party-state nomenclature has enabled the industrialization of the country by reducing the living standards of its population (both urban and rural). In organizational terms, this model of socialism was based on maximum centralization and rigid planning. In terms of social it relied on formal democracy under the absolute domination of the party-state apparatus in all areas of life of the population. Dominated policy and non-economic methods of coercion, state control of the means of production has changed the socialization of the latter.
In these conditions significantly changed the social structure of Soviet society. By the end of 30 years the country's leadership said that the Soviet society after the elimination of capitalist elements consists of three friendly classes — the workers, collective-farm peasantry and people's intelligentsia. Among the workers formed several groups — a small number of privileged stratum of highly paid skilled workers and a significant layer of the major manufacturers, uninterested in the outcome of labor and therefore low-paid. Increased turnover of personnel.
the village of socialized labor of collective farmers were paid very low. Almost half of all agricultural produce grown on small private plots of collective farmers. In fact the collective farm fields gave much less products. Farmers were disadvantaged in political rights. They lost their passports and the right of free movement within the country.
the Soviet people's intelligentsia, most of which were unskilled clerks, was in a privileged position. It is mainly formed from yesterday's workers and peasants, the ego could not reduce its obscheob educational level.
the new Constitution of the USSR of 1936 has found a new reflection of the changes that occurred in Soviet society and political system of the country since the adoption in 1924 of the first Constitution. It is declarative, reinforcing the fact of the victory of socialism in the USSR. The basis of the new Constitution were the principles of socialism, the state socialist ownership of the means of production, elimination of exploitation and the exploiting classes, work as a duty and obligation of every healthy citizen, the right to work, leisure and other socio-economic and political rights.
Political form of organization of state power in the centre and in the field were the Soviets. Updated and the electoral system: direct elections were by secret ballot. For the Constitution of 1936 was characterized by a combination of new social rights of the population with a series of liberal democratic rights — freedom of speech, press, conscience, rallies, demonstrations, etc. Another thing is how consistently these rights and freedoms are implemented in practice.
the New Soviet Constitution reflects the objective tendency of Soviet society towards democratization, stemming from the essence of the socialist system. Thus, it contradicted the already established practice of the autocracy of Stalin as head of the Communist party and the state. In real life, continued mass arrests, arbitrary, extrajudicial killings. These contradictions between words and deeds become in 30 years a characteristic phenomenon in the life of our country. Preparation, discussion and adoption of a new Basic law of the land sold concurrently with the rigged political process, rampant repression, violent elimination of prominent leaders of the party and state that has not accepted the regime of personal power and personality cult of Stalin. The ideological basis of these phenomena began his famous thesis about the sharpening of the class struggle in the country in terms of socialism, which he declared in 1937, became the most terrible year of mass repressions.
By 1939, virtually all of the "Leninist guard" was destroyed. Repression and touched the red army from 1937 to 1938, was destroyed about 40 thousand officers of the army and Navy. Almost the entire high command of the red army were arrested, most of them were shot. Terror has affected all strata of Soviet society. The norm was exclusion of millions of Soviet people from public life and deprivation of civil rights, removal from office, exile, prison camps, the death penalty.
the International position of the USSR in 30-ies
in the early 30-ies of the USSR established diplomatic relations with most countries of the known world, and in 1934 joined the League of Nations — international organization created in 1919 with the purpose of the collective address issues in the global community. In 1936 followed the conclusion of the Franco-Soviet Treaty of mutual assistance in case of aggression. As in the same year, Nazi Germany and Japan signed the so-called "anti-Comintern Pact", which was later joined by Italy, the response to this was the conclusion in August 1937 non-aggression Pact with China.
the Threat of the Soviet Union from the countries of the fascist bloc was growing. Japan provoked two of the armed conflict near lake Hassan in the far East (August 1938), and in Mongolia, with which the Soviet Union was associated Alliance agreement (summer 1939). These conflicts were accompanied by significant losses on both sides.
After the conclusion of the Munich agreement on the rejection of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland distrust of the Soviet Union to the countries of the West who agreed with the claims Hitler part of Czechoslovakia, has increased. Despite this, Soviet diplomacy did not lose hope for the creation of a defensive Alliance with Britain and France. However, the negotiations with the delegations of these countries (August 1939) ended in failure.
This forced the Soviet government to go to the rapprochement with Germany. On 23 August 1939 was signed the Soviet-German non-aggression Pact, accompanied by a secret Protocol on the delimitation of spheres of influence in Europe. The sphere of influence of the Soviet Union were attributed Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Bessarabia. In the case of the partition of Poland by her Belarusian and Ukrainian territory was ceded to the Soviet Union.
after the attack of Germany on Poland on September 28, was signed a new Treaty with Germany, according to which the sphere of influence of the USSR retreated and Lithuania. Part of the territory of Poland became part of the Ukrainian and Byelorussian SSR. In August 1940, the Soviet government granted the request on granting the USSR the three new republics — Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian, where came to power Pro-Soviet government. At the same time, Romania has lost the categorical demand of the Soviet government and gave the USSR Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. Such a significant territorial expansion of the Soviet Union has pushed its borders far to the West, in terms of the threat of invasion by Germany should be evaluated as a positive thing.
Similar to the actions of the USSR against Finland led to the armed conflict that escalated into the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940 during the heavy winter fighting troops of the red army in February 1940, with huge work and losses managed to overcome was considered impregnable "Mannerheim line". Finland was forced to relinquish the USSR the entire Karelian isthmus, which greatly moved the border from Leningrad.
signing a non-aggression Pact with Nazi Germany only briefly delayed the beginning of the war. June 22, 1941, collecting a huge invasion force — 190 divisions of Germany and its allies without declaring war attacked the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was not ready for war. Slowly eliminated miscalculations of the war with Finland. Serious damage to the army and the country suffered from the Stalinist repressions of the 30-ies. Not better than it was with technical support. Despite the fact that the Soviet engineering thought has created a lot of samples of sophisticated military equipment to the army it was sent to a few, and mass production only improving.
the Summer and fall of 1941 were the most critical for the Soviet Union. The Nazi troops invaded in depth from 800 to 1,200 km, besieged Leningrad, came dangerously close to Moscow, occupied a large part of the Donbass and the Crimea, the Baltic States, Belarus, Moldova, almost all of Ukraine and several regions of the RSFSR. I killed a lot of people, was entirely destroyed the infrastructure of many cities and towns. However, the enemy was resisted by the courage and fortitude of the people and driven the financial possibilities of the country. Everywhere was a mass movement of resistance: behind enemy lines created guerrilla groups, and later even the whole compound.
Bleed the German troops in heavy defensive battles of the Soviet troops in the battle of Moscow, passed in early December 1941 in the attack, which lasted in some areas until April 1942. It dispelled the myth of invincibility of the enemy. Dramatically increased the international prestige of the USSR.
on 1 October 1941, ended in Moscow a conference of representatives of USSR, USA and great Britain, which laid the foundations of the creation of the anti-Hitler coalition. An agreement was signed about deliveries of military aid. And on 1 January 1942, 26 Nations signed the Declaration of the United Nations. Was created the anti-Hitler coalition and its leaders to decide questions of war and democratic postwar, at a joint conference in Tehran in 1943 and in Yalta and Potsdam in 1945.
In the early to mid — 1942 for the red army once again in a very difficult position. Using the absence of a second front in Western Europe, the German command concentrated against the Soviet Union effort. The success of the German troops in the beginning of the offensive was the result of underestimating their strength and opportunities, the result of the unsuccessful attempts of the Soviet offensive near Kharkov and blunders of command. The Nazis rushed to the Caucasus and to the Volga. On November 19, 1942 Soviet troops who stopped at Stalingrad at the cost of enormous losses, the enemy launched a counteroffensive, which ended with the encirclement and total elimination of the more than 330-strong force of the enemy.
However, a radical change in the course of the great Patriotic war came only in 1943. One of the main events this year was the victory of the Soviet troops in the battle of Kursk. It was one of the major battles of the war. Only one tank battle in the area Prokhorovka, the enemy lost 400 tanks and over 10 thousand people killed. Germany and its allies were forced from action to go on the defensive.
In 1944 on the Soviet-German front was held by the Belarusian offensive operation that bore the code name "Bagration". As a result of its implementation, the Soviet troops withdrew to their former state border. The enemy were not only driven out of the country, but also the liberation from Nazi captivity in Eastern and Central Europe. A b June 1944 landed in Normandy, the allies opened a second front.
In Europe, winter 1944-1945 in the course of the Ardennes-tion of the operation of Hitler's troops inflicted a serious defeat on the allies. The situation took a catastrophic and out of the plight they helped the Soviet army, which began a large-scale of the Berlin operation. In April-may this operation was completed, and our troops stormed the capital of Nazi Germany. On the river Elbe there was a historic meeting of allies. The German command was forced to capitulate. In the course of their offensive operations the Soviet army made a decisive contribution to the liberation of the occupied countries by the Nazi regime. 8 and 9 may in most
the countries of Europe and in the Soviet Union began to be celebrated as Victory Day.
However, the war was not yet over. In the night of 9 August 1945, the Soviet Union, loyal to its allied obligations, entered the war with Japan. Offensive in Manchuria against the Japanese Kwantung army and its defeat forced the Japanese government to admit a final defeat. 2 September was signed the capitulation of Japan. So after six long years the second world war was over. October 20, 1945 began the trial in the German city of Nuremberg against the major war criminals.
Soviet rear during the war
At the beginning of the great Patriotic war the Nazis managed to occupy developed in industrial and agricultural districts of the country, was the main of its military-industrial and product base. However, the Soviet economy was not only able to withstand extraordinary stress, but also to win over the economy of the enemy. In record time, the Soviet Union reconstructed on a war footing and has become a well-established war economy.
in the first days of the war, a large number of industrial enterprises from the frontline areas was prepared for evacuation in the Eastern areas of the country, to create the main Arsenal for the war effort. The evacuation was carried out in a remarkably short time, often under enemy fire and under the blows of his aircraft. The main strength in a short time to restore to new places evacuated enterprises to build new industrial capacity and to start production of products intended for the front, is the selfless labor of the Soviet people, which gave unprecedented samples of labor heroism.
In mid-1942 the USSR had rapidly growing military economy, capable to provide all the needs of the front. During the war years in the Soviet Union, iron ore production increased by 130%, pig iron production by almost 160%, steel — by 145%. In connection with the loss of Donbass and the withdrawal of the enemy towards oil sources in the Caucasus were undertaken energetic measures to increase production of coal, oil and other fuels in the Eastern parts of the country. With great effort he worked the light industry, managed after a difficult period for all national economy of the country 1942 and the next 1943, to carry out the plan of supplying the fighting army with all necessary. Transport also worked with a full load. From 1942 to 1945. the freight turnover of rail transport increased by almost half.
the Military industry of the USSR every year the military was given more and more arms, artillery weapons, tanks, planes, ammunition. Thanks to the dedicated work of workers in the rear by the end of 1943 the Red army all the war material already exceeded fascist. All this was the result of hard martial arts two different economic systems and the efforts of the entire Soviet people.
Value and the price of the victory of Soviet people over fascism
It was the Soviet Union, it is fighting the army and the people became the main force, block the path of German fascism to world domination. On the Soviet-German front was destroyed more than 600 fascist divisions, the enemy army is lost here three-quarters of its aircraft, a significant part of tanks and artillery.
the Soviet Union provided crucial aid to the peoples of Europe in their struggle for national independence. As a result of victory over fascism decisively changed the balance of power in the world. Significantly increased the authority of the Soviet Union in the international arena. In Eastern Europe, the power was transferred to the governments of democracy, socialism went beyond a single country. Were eliminated economic and political isolation of the USSR. The Soviet Union into a great world power. This was the main reason for the formation of a new geopolitical situation in the world characterized in the future a confrontation between two different systems — socialist and capitalist.
the War against fascism have brought to our country incalculable losses and destruction. Almost 27 million Soviet people died, more than 10 million on the battlefields. About 6 million of our compatriots were in Nazi captivity, 4 million of them died. In the rear of the enemy killed almost 4 million partisans and underground fighters. Grief of irretrievable losses came almost every Soviet family.
During the war, was completely destroyed over 1,700 cities and about 70 thousand villages and villages. Nearly 25 million people lost the roof over my head. Major cities such as Leningrad, Kiev, Kharkov and others, has undergone significant destruction and some of them, such as Minsk, Stalingrad, Rostov-on-don, was completely in ruins.
a Truly tragic situation in the village. About 100 thousand collective farms and state farms were destroyed by the invaders. Acreage has declined significantly. Affected animal. In its technological capacity in agriculture of the country was dropped to the level of the first half of the 30-ies. The country has lost about a third of its national wealth. Damage caused by the war in the Soviet Union, exceeded the losses during the Second world war, all other European countries combined.
Recovery of the Soviet economy in the postwar years
the Main objectives of the fourth five-year development plan of national economy (1946-1950) was the restoration of destroyed and war-ravaged parts of the country, reaching pre-war levels of industry and agriculture. At first, the Soviet people faced with enormous challenges in this field — lack of food, difficulties of recovery of agriculture, exacerbated by strong bad harvest of 1946, the problems of the translation industry to civilian production, the massive demobilization of the army. All this did not allow the Soviet leadership until the end of 1947. to exercise control over the economy of the country.
However, in 1948 industrial output exceeded the prewar level. In 1946 he was blocked by the 1940 for the production of electricity in 1947, coal, in the following 1948 — steel and cement. By 1950 a significant part of the indicators of the fourth five-year plan was implemented. On the West of the country was put into effect almost 3,200 industrial enterprises. The main emphasis, therefore, was made, as during the prewar five-year plans, industrial development, and above all — heavy.
the Soviet Union did not have to rely on the help of his former Western allies in the reconstruction of its industrial and agricultural potential. Therefore, only our own resources and hard work of all the people were the main source of reconstruction of the economy of the country. Growing massive investment in industry. Their volume was much higher than the investment that went to the national economy in the 30-ies in the first five-year period.
With all close attention to heavy industry, the situation in agriculture has not improved yet. Moreover, we can speak about a protracted crisis in the postwar period. The decline of agriculture forced the country's leadership to turn to a proven in the 30-ies of the methods, involving primarily the rehabilitation and strengthening of the collective farms. The leadership demanded the implementation of any price plans that did not come from the capabilities of the collective and the needs of the state. The control of agriculture was increased dramatically again. The peasantry was under heavy tax yoke. Purchase prices for agricultural products were very low, for their work in the collective farmers received very little. Still they were denied passports and freedom of movement.
And yet, by the end of the fourth five-year plan's heavy consequences of the war in the field of agriculture have been partially overcome. Despite this, agriculture still remained a kind of "pain point" of the entire economy and required a radical reorganization, which, unfortunately, in the postwar period was not neither means, nor forces.
the victory of the USSR in the great Patriotic war led to a serious change in the balance of forces in the international arena. The USSR acquired large areas in the West (part of East Prussia, Carpathian region etc.), and East (southern Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands). Increased influence of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe. Immediately after the war here in several countries (Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia etc.) with the support of the USSR was formed Communist government. In China in 1949. the revolution took place, which resulted in to power also came the Communist regime.
All this could not lead to a confrontation of former allies. In the face of fierce opposition and rivalry between the two different socio-political and economic systems — socialist and capitalist, called the "cold war" the Soviet government has made great efforts in its policy and ideology in the countries of Western Europe and Asia, which it believed to be the objects of its influence. The division of Germany into two States, the FRG and the GDR, the Berlin crisis of 1949 marked the final break between the former allies and the division of Europe into two hostile camps.
After the formation of a military-political Alliance of the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) in 1949 the shape was a single line in the economic and political relations between the USSR and countries of people's democracy. For these purposes, created the Council for Mutual Economic assistance (CMEA), which coordinated economic relations of socialist countries and to strengthen their defense in 1955. was formed and their military Alliance (the Warsaw Pact) as counterweight to NATO.
After losing the US monopoly on nuclear weapons in 1953, the Soviet Union first tested a thermonuclear (hydrogen) bomb. Began the process of rapid creation in both countries — the Soviet Union and the United States — new carriers of nuclear weapons and more modern weapons — the so-called arms race.
So did the global rivalry between the USSR and the USA. This hardest period in the history of modern humanity, called the "cold war", showed how two opposite political and socio-economic systems fought for dominance and influence in the world and was preparing for a new, now useunicode war. It split the world into two parts. Now everything is viewed through the prism of hard confrontation and rivalry.
the Death of I. V. Stalin became milestones in the development of our country. The totalitarian system created in the 30-ies, which was characterized by the features of state-administrative socialism with the domination of party-state nomenclature in all its parts, by the early 50-ies has exhausted itself. It needed a radical change. The process of de-Stalinization, which began in 1953, developed very difficult and controversial. In the end it led to the coming to power of N.With.Khrushchev, who in September 1953 the de facto head of the country. His desire to abandon his former repressive methods of leadership has won the sympathy of many honest Communists and most of the Soviet people. At the XX Congress of the CPSU held in February 1956, a sharp criticism of the policy of Stalinism. Khrushchev's speech to the delegates, later, in the milder expressions published in the press, revealed the perversion of the ideals of socialism, which Stalin made in the nearly thirty years of his dictatorial rule.
the Process of de-Stalinization of the Soviet society was very inconsistent. It did not affect the essential aspects of the formation and development
ment of the totalitarian regime in our country. N. With.Khrushchev was a typical product of this regime, only realized the potential inability of the former leadership to keep it in an unchanged form. His attempt of democratization of the country were doomed to failure, since in any case, the real implementation of the changes, both political and economic line of the Soviet Union fell on the shoulders of the former state and party apparatus, who did not want any radical changes.
however, many of the victims of Stalinist repression were rehabilitated, some of the peoples of the country, repressed Stalin's regime, had the opportunity to return to their former places of residence. Were restored their autonomy. The most odious representatives of the secret police of the country was removed from power. The report N.With.Khrushchev's twentieth party Congress confirmed the previous political course of the country aimed at finding possibilities of peaceful coexistence of countries with different political system, the easing of international tension. Characteristically, it was already recognized the various ways of building a socialist society.
the fact that the public condemnation of Stalin's tyranny had a huge impact on the lives of the Soviet people. Changes in the life of the country led to the weakening of the system of the state, barracks socialism built in the USSR. Total control of the authorities over all spheres of life of the population of the Soviet Union left in the past. It is these, already out of control by the authorities of the change of the previous political system of the society have caused a desire to strengthen the authority of the party. In 1959, at the XXI Congress of the CPSU and the entire Soviet people, it was stated that socialism in the USSR gained complete and final victory. The fact that our country has entered a period of "full development of Communist society", was confirmed by the adoption of the new programme of the Communist party, detailing the task of building the foundations of communism in the Soviet Union by the beginning of 80-ies of our century.
the Collapse of Khrushchev's leadership. Return to the system of totalitarian socialism
N. With.Khrushchev as a reformer established in the Soviet Union socio-political system was highly vulnerable. He had to change it, relying on its own resources. So many, not always deliberate reform initiatives of this typical representative of the administrative-command system could not greatly not only to change, but even to shatter. All his attempts to "clean socialism" from the consequences of Stalinism failed. Ensuring the return of power to party structures, returning the party-state nomenclature of its importance and saving her from potential reprisals, N. With.Khrushchev had fulfilled its historic mission.
Aggravated the food shortage of the early 60's, if not turned all the population is dissatisfied with the actions previously energetic reformer, at least a determined indifference to his fate. Therefore, the removal of Khrushchev in October 1964 as Director of the country by the highest representatives of the Soviet party and state nomenklatura went quite peacefully and without incident.
In the late 60-ies — 70-ies, a gradual slide of the Soviet economy to stagnation almost all its branches. It was obvious steady decline in major economic indicators. Looked particularly unfavourable economic development of the USSR on the background of the world economy, which is now significantly progressed. The Soviet economy continued reproduction of their industrial structures, with emphasis on traditional sectors, in particular on the export of fuel and energy re-
resources. This of course caused considerable damage to the development of high technology and sophisticated equipment, the share of which decreased significantly.
Extensive development of the Soviet economy significantly restrict the solution of problems of a social nature related to the concentration of resources in heavy industry and military-industrial complex, social sphere of life of the population of our country in the period of stagnation was outside the purview of the government. The country gradually sank into a severe crisis, and all attempts to avoid him were not successful.
Attempt to accelerate socio-economic development of the country
by the end of 70-ies for the part of the Soviet leadership and of millions of Soviet citizens has become apparent inability to retain the existing order in the country. The last years of the reign of Leonid Brezhnev, who came to power after the offset N.With.Khrushchev, took place against the backdrop of the crisis the economic and social spheres in the country, the growth of apathy and indifference of the people, the deformed morality of those in power. Manifestly felt symptoms of decay in all areas of life. Some attempts to find a way out of this situation was taken by the new leader of the country — Yuri Andropov. Although he was a typical representative and an outspoken advocate of the former system, however some of his decisions and actions have already been shaken previously unquestioned ideological dogmas, not allowing his predecessors to implement, though theoretically reasonable, but practically failed reform attempts.
New leadership of the country, relying mainly on tough administrative measures, tried to focus on restoring order and discipline in the country, eliminating corruption that plagues all levels of government. It gave temporary success have slightly improved the economic indicators of the country. From the leadership of the party and the government were bred some of the most odious functionaries, against many of the leaders held high posts, were criminal cases.
the Change of political leadership after the death of Yuri Andropov in 1984 showed how great the power of nomenclature. The new General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, the terminally ill Konstantin Chernenko, as if personified the system, which tried to reform its predecessor. The country is still developed as if by inertia, people care about watching the attempts Chernenko to return to the Soviet Union to the Brezhnev orders. Were stopped numerous initiatives Andropov's economic recovery, renewing and cleaning of managerial personnel.
In March 1985, the leadership of the country came Mikhail Gorbachev, the representative of the relatively young and ambitious wing of the party management. On his initiative, in April 1985 was declared a new strategic course of development of the country, focused on accelerating its socio-economic development through scientific and technical progress, technical re-equipment of machine building and enhancing the "human factor". Its implementation, at first, were able to improve the economic indicators of the USSR.
In February-March, 1986 hosted the XXVII Congress of the Soviet Communists, which by this time amounted to 19 million people. At the Congress held in traditional ceremonial setting, we adopted a new edition of the party program from which it was removed unfulfilled task to build the foundations of a Communist society in the USSR by 1980 Instead proclaimed a policy of "improving" socialism, determined the democratization of Soviet society, the electoral system, were making plans to solve the housing problem by the year 2000. It was at this Congress was nominated, the policy of restructuring all aspects of life in Soviet society, however specific mechanisms of its implementation have not yet been worked out, and it was perceived as the usual ideological slogan.
the policy of perestroika, Gorbachev proclaimed, accompanied by slogans accelerate the country's economic development and openness, freedom of speech in the public life of the Soviet population. Economic freedom of activity of the enterprises, the expansion independence, and the revival of the private sector turned out for the majority of the population, rising prices, shortages of basic goods, and falling living standards. Policy of glasnost, at first perceived as a common criticism of negative phenomena in Soviet society, led to the runaway process of denigrating the entire past of the country, the emergence of new ideological and political currents and parties, the alternative course of the CPSU.
Along with this, the Soviet Union radically changes its foreign policy — now it was aimed at easing tensions between the West and the East, the settlement of regional wars and conflicts, the expansion of economic and political relations with all States. The Soviet Union ended the war in Afghanistan, improved relations with China, the USA, contributed to the unification of Germany, etc.
Expansion of the administrative-command system, generated by the perestroika processes in the USSR, the abolition of the old levers of the country and its economy significantly worsened the life of the Soviet people and radically influenced the further deterioration of the economic situation. In the Union republics was growing centrifugal tendencies. Moscow was no longer able to tightly control the situation in the country. Market reforms enunciated in the several decisions of the leadership of the country, could not be comprehended by ordinary people, as they further worsen the already low level of welfare of the people. Increased inflation, growing prices of "black market", not enough goods and products. Common steel strike of workers in ethnic conflicts. In these circumstances, the representatives of the former party and state nomenklatura attempted coup — the offset of Gorbachev from the post of President of the crumbling Soviet Union. The failure of the putsch of August 1991 showed the impossibility of reviving the old political system. The fact of the attempted coup was the result of inconsistent and ill-conceived policies of Gorbachev, leading the country to ruin. In the days that followed the coup, many former Soviet republics declared their full independence, the three Baltic republics have achieved its recognition by the Soviet Union. The Communist party was suspended. Gorbachev, who had lost all the levers of governance and the credibility of the party and state leader, resigned as Soviet President.
the Collapse of the Soviet Union led to the fact that in December 1991, the us President has congratulated his people to victory in the cold war. The Russian Federation became the legal successor of the former USSR, inherited all the difficulties in the economy, social life and political relations of the former world power. The President Of Russia B. N. Yeltsin, have difficulty maneuvering between the various political currents and parties of the country have relied on a group of reformers, who took a hard line on market reforms in the country. Practice ill-conceived privatization of state property, applying for financial assistance from international organizations and major powers of East and West, have worsened the overall situation in the country. Non-payment of wages, criminal clashes at the state level, the uncontrolled division of state property, the fall in living standards of the people with the formation of very small layer of super-rich citizens — this is the result of the policies of the current leadership of the country. Russia will face a big test. But the whole history of the Russian people shows that his creative powers and intellectual capacities in any way will overcome the modern challenges.